The New Apostolic Movement in Historical Context
By Paul L. King, D. Min., Th.D.
Published in Refleks international journal, April 2006
The New Apostolic Revolution of the late 20th and early 21st centuries has
resurrected the concept of apostles as governmental leaders in the Church, and has
become an ongoing and controversial movement, proposing alternative structures to
traditional denominational leadership. It has been hailed as “changing the shape of
Protestant Christianity around the world.”1 In order to understand this movement, we
need first to survey the history of apostolic movements and concepts.
After the last of the original New Testament apostles died, apostles were replaced
with bishops and the concept of apostolic succession. In the New Testament era, the term
bishop (Greek, episcopos—overseer) was synonymous with elder and pastor (Acts 20:17,
28; 1 Peter 5:1-2). However, with Ignatius, shortly after the dawn of the second century,
the term bishop became elevated to one who held authority over a group of churches or
pastors or a region, and the term apostle appears to have been abandoned. Ignatius stated
that the council of elders had the authority of apostles, but he did not call them apostles.2
Ignatius referred to himself as a magisterial bishop, but avowed he did not command with
the authority of the apostles.3
The Didache, or the Teaching of the Twelve, usually dated about 120 A.D., does
speak of the continuing role of apostles and prophets: “But concerning the apostles and
prophets, according to the decree of the Gospel, thus do. Let every apostle that cometh to
you be received as the Lord. But he shall not remain except one day; but if there be need,
also the next; but if he remains three days, he is a false prophet. And when the apostle
goeth away, let him take nothing but bread until he lodgeth; but if he ask money, he is a
After this time, however, the term was seldom ever used of post-New Testament
church leaders. Rather, the concept of apostolic succession became the norm. Irenaeus
and Tertullian asserted that those who had not seen the New Testament apostles, even if
they claimed to have new revelation, are not apostles.5 By the fourth century, church
historian Eusebius claimed that evangelists “held the first rank in apostolic succession”
and performed the apostolic function of “laying the foundation of the faith.”6 Garrett
notes of Eusebius:
It is significant that in his account of the early church, Eusebius clearly distinguished
between apostles (those labeled as “apostle” in the New Testament) and church
leaders who succeeded them. According to Eusebius, the successors of the apostles
did not bear the label “apostle.” Evangelists, as itinerant preachers of the Gospel,
were considered to be those who succeeded the apostles in their trans-local ministry.
The senior (most aged) overseer in a region became the arbiter of apostolic doctrine.
Thus, after the death of John (95-99 AD), according to Eusebius’ record, no one was
called an “apostle” in the early Church.7
After thorough computerized research of the term apostle throughout the literature
of Church Fathers, Garrett found: “In these documents, with few exceptions, the term,
apostle, was used only for those who in the New Testament were labeled apostle. Most
of these exceptions are New Testament figures who did apostolic work, but were not
labeled apostles in the New Testament. Those who claimed the title apostle after the
death of John were, for the most part, labeled false apostles.”8 The reasons for this
appear to be respect for the apostles as the unique founders of the church, concern to
maintain the purity and authority of apostolic doctrine, as well as unity of the church
through apostolic succession.9 Vinson Synan notes of the Reformation time:
In his Institutes of the Christian Religion, Calvin wrote “The Lord now and again
revives them [apostles, prophets and evangelists] as the need of the times demands.”
These offices, however, have no place in “duly constituted churches,” he added. In a
similar vein, Luther believed “the apostolic message rather than the office” would
remain in the church.10
Occasionally throughout church history missionaries have been considered
apostles in a generic sense, such as William Carey and Hudson Taylor being considered
as apostles of missions. Also those who have pioneered new paths in Christian ministry
and growth or new movements have sometimes been considered as apostles, such as
George Müller and Smith Wigglesworth called apostles of faith. A. B. Simpson was
considered an apostle for his pioneering work of missionary outreach through the parachurch
organization he founded, The Christian and Missionary Alliance (C&MA).
19th and 20th Century Restorationism
With the revivals and renewals of the 1800s came a sense of restoring the
apostolic church. The American Campbell/Stone (Thomas and Alexander and Barton
Stone) Restoration Movement endeavored to recover New Testament practices and
emphases, though not focusing on apostles. From this movement emerged the Disciples
of Christ, independent Christian Churches, and the Church of Christ. The first apparent
“apostolic movement” emerged through the teachings of Edward Irving, who believed in
the restoration of the gifts, ministries and offices of the New Testament Church, and
founded the Catholic Apostolic Church, in which apostles were appointed. The last of
those apostles died in 1901, with no provision for future apostles, so the denomination
became almost extinct.11
In the late 1800s, some in the Higher Life and Keswick holiness movements were
emphasizing renewal of the New Testament church. The idea of a “Latter Rain”
restoration was taught in many holiness circles. For instance, C&MA leader W. C.
Stevens wrote as early as 1891 that recovery of the healing ministry would open the door
for all the other supernatural manifestations, and that restoration of the rest of the gifts
would be revived in the logical order of listing in 1 Corinthians 12.12 Stevens and
C&MA theologians were teaching on the Latter Rain long before the Azusa Street
Pentecostal Revival. In 1901 John Alexander Dowie, a faith healer who founded the
Christian Church, claimed he was the prophetic fulfillment of Elijah, the Restorer. By
1904 he expected “full restoration of apostolic Christianity and revealed that he had been
divinely commissioned to be the first apostle of a renewed end-times church.”13 His
health failed and he was embroiled in scandal and controversy, dying in 1907.
With the Azusa Street Pentecostal movement there emerged what was called
“apostolic faith,” recovery of the beliefs and practices of the apostolic church.14 At the
same time, the movement did not, by and large, believe in the office of apostle.15 In the
1930s Chinese minister Watchman Nee, influenced by Keswick, Pentecostalism and the
Brethren churches, taught on the reality and roles of apostles, distinguishing them as
universally preaching the gospel, but not exercising authority over local churches, which
is the role of prophets, teachers, and elders.16
In the late 1940s a new Latter Rain Movement sprung up with emphasis on
restoring apostles and prophets and the importance of the role of laying on of hands.17
The Assemblies of God branded the movement as heretical and dismissed the idea of the
office of apostle for today. Donald Gee likewise severely criticized the office of apostle
in the Apostolic Church and the Apostolic Faith Church in Great Britain, remarking, “To
bestow New Testament titles of offices upon mean and women and then consider that by
doing so we are creating apostolic assemblies parallel to those of the primitive church is
very much like children playing at churches.”18 One of the products of the Latter Rain
Movement was John Robert Stevens, a former Assemblies of God minister who founded
an independent work called Living Word Ministries (also informally called “The
Walk”).19 Declared to be an apostle, some of his followers believed he was a
reincarnation of Elijah, and various legends grew about his spiritual superiority and
Apostolic Conceptions in the Charismatic Movement
With the emergence of the charismatic movement in the 1960s came the renewal
of belief in restoration of all the gifts and ministries of the Spirit. The “Ft. Lauderdale
Five” who launched the shepherding movement (sometimes also called a Covenant
movement) taught a form of restorationism, relating to the Latter Rain conception. They
included Ern Baxter (who had contacts with the Latter Rain movement), Don Basham,
Charles Simpson, Bob Mumford, and Derek Prince.21 John Poole, whose father was
active in the Latter Rain Movement, circulated with this group of leaders for a time.22
Trying to bring order and discipline to the excesses in the charismatic movement, they
endeavored to provide authority, counsel and structure. Although they did not call
themselves apostles, they began to fashion, in embryonic form, the idea of an apostolic
council of church government or “trans-local authority.”23 Because of accusations of
authoritarianism and legalism, the shepherding movement lost favor and eventually
A similar covenant movement developed in the United Kingdom, particularly
through Bryn Jones, teaching restoration of the five-fold ministry of Ephesians 4. Jones
was designated an apostle in that movement.24 In South Africa during the early 1990s
leaders such as Derek Morphew and Ray McCauley (Rhema Bible Church) recognized
the ministry and office of apostle, but shunned the term to describe their ministries even
though they appeared to operate in an apostolic capacity.25 Other apostolic-like
movements that arose during the 1970s and 1980s included the People of Destiny, now
known as the Sovereign Grace Movement, led by C. J. Mahoney and formerly Larry
Tomczak, and Maranatha Ministries, a college campus church-planting ministry founded
by Bob Weiner. Accused of authoritarianism similar to the shepherding movement, it
disbanded in 1989. The International Communion of Charismatic Churches was formed
in 1982 with Earl Paulk as archbishop.
Apostolic Conceptions in the Third Wave Movement
Apostolic conceptualization re-emerged through the Third Wave movement
beginning in the 1980s. Bill Hamon, significantly influenced by the Latter Rain
Movement, as presented in his 1981 book The Eternal Church,26 launched his emphasis
on restoration of apostles and prophets in 1988. His teaching consummated in his 1996
book Apostles, Prophets and the Coming Moves of God,27 endorsed by Oral Roberts,
among others.28 David Cannistraci’s books The Gift of Apostle and Apostles and the
Emerging Apostolic Movement followed in 1996 and 1998. 29 A diversity of charismatics
and Pentecostals like David Yonggi Cho, Ted Haggard, Freda Lindsay, Cindy Jacobs,
and even a non-charismatic like Bill Bright, founder of Campus Crusade, endorsed his
books. Ken Sumrall founded the Church Foundational Network in 1995, providing
apostolic oversight for a variety of churches, cells, and pastors,30 and related to it the
Apostolic Family Ministries.31
Following on their heels in 1998, C. Peter Wagner’s book The New Apostolic
Churches describes the New Apostolic Revolution (NAR).32 He recognizes a pattern of
divine blessing through church movements that have been especially blessed by God
through enormous church growth as being “new apostolic churches.” The leaders of
these church movements are then the new apostles, people who have had a large “amount
of spiritual authority delegated to individuals.”33 He includes a diversity of American
church leaders and movements such as Billy Jo Daugherty’s Victory Fellowship of
Ministries, Dick Iverson’s Ministers Fellowship International, Larry Krieder’s Dove
Christian Fellowship International, Bill Hybel’s Willow Creek Association, and
Wellington Boone’s Fellowship of International Churches, as well as worldwide, such as
Lawrence Khong in Singapore, William Kuymuyl of Deeper Life Ministry in Nigeria,
Paul Daniel’s His People Christian Ministries in South Africa, Eddie Villanueva of Jesus
Is Lord Church in the Philippines, and Joseph Wongsak’s Hope of Bangkok Church in
This new apostolic revolution is characterized by new authority structures unlike
denominations with loosely structured apostolic networks, new homegrown leadership
development and releasing people to ministry in the local church, new ministry focus that
is vision driven, new worship styles and prayer forms, new attitudes toward financing,
fresh approaches to aggressive outreach, and a new supernatural power orientation (even
in non-charismatic churches). His book had the endorsement of no less than the noncharismatic
fundamentalist church leader Elmer Towns from Liberty University, who
wrote the foreword to his book.34 While the influence of Bill Hamon and the Latter Rain
movement is strongly evident, Wagner also sees roots of the new apostolic movement in
the African independent church movement beginning about 1900, the charismatic
movement, the Chinese house church movement, and the Latin American grassroots
church movements, all from the 1970s.35
In 2004 Ministries Today emphasized the five-fold ministries of Ephesians 4,
devoting an entire issue to apostles. They identified other apostles and apostolic
ministries such as Samuel Lee and his network of churches in Europe and worldwide,
Cesar Castellanos and the G-12 (“Government of Twelve”) cell movement, Mosey
Madugba’s Spiritual Life Outreach missions ministry in Africa, Zhang Rongliang’s
Chinese for Christ movement, and Kayy Gordon’s church planting Glad Tidings Arctic
Mission.36 Larry Keefauver names other international apostolic leaders such as Pam
Seward in Nepal, Raymond Mooi and Li Ming in Malaysia, Timothy and Fifi in Bali,
Petrus and Tina in Indonesia, Kong Hee and Sun in Singapore, Suri and Mari Kerulo in
Fiji, Gary Haynes in Brazil, Bob and Annie Christian in Serbia, among many others.37
In 2004 Wagner announced that he believes the church has entered a “second
apostolic age.”38 Many other apostolic networks have developed throughout the United
States and worldwide, such as through Jim Hodges, the apostle of the Federation of
Ministers and Churches. The Apostolic Council for Educational Accountability (ACEA)
was formed as an alternative to traditional educational accreditation.39 Che Ahn, pastor
of Harvest Rock Church in Pasadena, California, is the presiding apostle of the apostolic
team of Harvest International Ministries.40 The Council of International Charismatic
Bishops, with a global network in more than 100 countries, have regional leaders that
make up an Apostolic Leadership Council.41 The largest and most influential apostolic
movement appears to be the International Coalition of Apostles (ICA) including such
leaders as Chuck Pierce, John Eckhart, John Kelly, with Wagner as the presiding
apostle.42 Over 350 leaders of the Apostolic Reformation recognized as apostles.43
Responses and Controversies
In 2004 Doug Beachem of the International Pentecostal Holiness Church
published Rediscovering the Role of Apostles and Prophets, endeavoring to provide a
balance to the emerging apostolic movements and responding to Wagner’s books.44
While recognizing the insights of the New Apostolic Revolution, he envisions more hope
for renewing and restructuring denominational structures and leadership than Wagner.
The Assemblies of God responded to the New Apostolic Revolution with a book of
essays in 2005 entitled He Gave Apostles: Apostolic Ministry in the 21st Century, based
on lectures from the AG Theological Seminary Symposium “Apostolic Ministry in the
Pentecostal-Charismatic Tradition.”45 The Assemblies of God have reiterated their
opposition to the conception of the authoritative apostolic office today, while leaving the
door open for the possibility of apostles in a more general and limited sense.46 One
notable exception is the book by David Cartledge, The Apostolic Revolution: The
Restoration of Apostles and Prophets in the Assemblies of God in Australia.47 Some of
the ongoing controversial issues regarding the New Apostolic Revolution include:
1. Interpretations of Roles of Apostles. Current scholarship presents three views
of the phrase “foundation of the apostles and prophets in Ephesians 2:18-22: (a) genitive
of apposition—the foundation which is the apostles and prophets, (b) genitive of
possession—“the Apostles’ foundation”—“that on which they built or that on which they
were built,” (c) genitive of originating cause—the foundation laid by the apostles and
prophets.48 Which interpretation is valid continues to be debated.
Third Wave theologian Wayne Grudem insists that apostles in the strict biblical
sense there are no apostles today, and the term should not be used as a title.49 Cannistraci
mentions Grudem briefly, but does not engage his interpretation of the exegetical
issues.50 Tan distinguishes between the pre-Pentecostal commission of “The Twelve”
apostles, and the post-Pentecostal “ascension” apostles of Ephesians 4:11.51 There are
also questions over the authority of apostles today. Wagner’s ICA is setting up a
sophisticated business-like structure. However, according to Garrett, the role of the
apostle in the New Testament (beyond the 12) is more one of church-planting, not a
2. Resurrection of an old heresy. Steinkamp considers the entire “Latter Rain”
concept as an illegitimate allegorical interpretation of Scripture, therefore the idea of
present day apostles illegitimate.53 To G. Raymond Carlson, former General
Superintendent of the Assemblies of God, the New Apostolic Movement is a resurrection
of an old heresy: “I saw it in the New Order of the Latter Rain in the late 40s and early
50s. Before that it made its presence felt in the early days of the century among early
Pentecostals.”54 As early as 1991, Nico Horn addressed the issue at the Society for
Pentecostal Studies Conference with his paper “Apostolic Leadership: Renewal of the
Church or Pentecostal Heresy?, saying that present day apostolic movements are less
extreme than earlier attempts to reintroduce the apostolic office.”55
3. Who is to say who is an apostle? Cannistraci deftly sidestepped the question,
saying it is not his place to say.56 However, Wagner in his book The New Apostolic
Churches, included specific individuals who he believes have an apostolic anointing.
Most of these are charismatic in orientation, although he includes Bill Hybels.
4. Related to this, can women be apostles? Cannistraci briefly discusses this, but
does not come to a firm conclusion.57 The exegetical evidence does not appear to be
clear enough to make a definitive determination either way. Even if the interpretation is
accepted that Junia(s) in Romans 16:15 is a woman apostle, Cannistraci notes that it was
not a common phenomenon for a woman to fulfill that role.58 Some new apostolic
networks provide liberty for women to serve and be ordained in ministry, but not in
5. Authoritarianism and the new hierarchy. As Horn observed in 1990, “The ego
mania of Dowie, the extravagant claims of the apostles of the New Apostolic Church and
the developments around John Robert Stevens is a clear indication that the office of the
apostle can lead to manipulation and the misuse of power.”60 Hayford warns, “some
approaches to contemporary ‘apostle-ing’ manifestly revert to oppressive hierarchical
structures.”61 The creation of apostolic teams or networks with mutual accountability is
designed to decrease such manipulation and abuse of power, but is not failsafe. What if
the network of apostles is in mutual agreement about a theological issue or a practice, but
their position is not sound?
Horn posits, “As long as the independence of the local church remains a pillar in
the restoration movement, the churches (and even individual members) are even less
vulnerable to the abuse of power than a church in a centralized Pentecostal denomination.
This local independence makes any apostolic movement very vulnerable for schisms. . . .
However, if this principle is deviated from in any way, the nondenominational movement
will not only become a real denomination, it will also make the apostles almost
untouchable.”62 There is also the concern of “breakup of covenant relationships between
apostles, the moving apostles from one team to another and the often open enmity
between apostolic teams.”63
The shepherding movement had tried to establish a kind of apostolic hierarchy,
but due to the authoritarianism it was rejected and eventually dissolved. There seems to
be a new hierarchy emerging with Wagner’s concepts of horizontal and vertical apostles.
Though he claims to be a horizontal apostle, as the presiding apostle of ICA he appears to
be a vertical apostle. Some see the ICA as a rehashing of the shepherding movement.
Hyatt notes that “according to Matt. 20:25-26, apostles are not rulers over God’s people,
but servants to God’s people.”64
6. Coupling strategic level spiritual warfare with apostolic leadership. Wagner
claims that strategic level spiritual warfare (SLSW) is a part of the new apostles’ calling,
and those who do not accept the exegesis and practice SLSW are “anti-war,” or “spiritual
pacifists.”65 He claims that the new apostles are the “generals” of SLSW. That would
appear to mean that if someone does not fully accept the theology and practices of
SLSW, that person can not function as a new apostle. Therefore, for example, someone
like Kenneth Hagin, considered an apostle of the word of faith movement, could not
function as an apostle in this movement because of his opposition to some aspects of
7. Related to this, concerns about elitism. Making belief is SLSW a characteristic
or condition of apostleship obviously raises the concern of exclusivity. Further,
membership in ICA is only by official invitation from ICA leadership.67 Wagner claims it
is not exclusive because other apostolic groups are arising too. This may be true, but the
selectiveness of ICA could make it a country club of apostles, leaving out others who
may have an apostolic anointing but not view things the same way.
8. Lack of biblical basis for terminology and structure of the new apostolic
movement. Acknowledging that he is using a phenomenological approach, Wagner posits
a methodology and terminology of ecclesiastical apostles, functional apostles, horizontal
and vertical apostles, convening, ambassadorial, mobilizing, territorial, and marketplace
apostles.68 Borne out of a pragmatic managerial point of view, it is difficult to find clear
biblical basis for such a scheme. Peter, Paul, James and the other apostles do not seem to
have instituted anything nearly as structured as what Wagner has proposed.
9. Concerns about a “lighter doctrinal load.” Wagner proposes in the New
Apostolic Revolution moving “from a heavy doctrinal load to a lighter doctrinal load,”69
allowing for broader toleration of a variety of interpretations of Scripture without
compromising the essentials of the faith. While he encourages toleration of the various
camps of eschatology and such issues as Calvinism vs. Arminianism, he also includes
controversial doctrinal variations such as openness theology and non-Trinitarian oneness
Pentecostalism, downplaying the role of systematic theology and hermeneutics. On the
other hand, Garrett observes that New Testament apostles such as Peter, Paul and John
were quite concerned about correcting doctrinal error, cautioning that apostles “must be
good exegetes, but also possess discernment.”70
Though there is no clear consensus, there is a general acceptance that apostles can
exist in some form today, though not with the distinctiveness and extent of authority as
the original twelve appointed by Jesus. Beacham concludes, “While Pentecostal
denominations accept the reality of contemporary ‘apostolic and prophetic’ ministries,
not all accept the NAR premise that there are contemporary ‘offices’ of apostles and
prophets. Nonetheless, denominations need to find ways to identify, encourage and
recognize the ‘apostolic’ leaders in their midst—even if we remain uncomfortable with
calling someone an ‘apostle.’”71
It would seem that the concept of modern-day apostles in some form is here to
stay, hence, Horn concludes:
For those Pentecostals and charismatic who are discontented with democratically
elected church leadership without grassroots recognition of ministry, discontented
with ecclesiastical structures and searching for a structure based on trust and
voluntary fellowship, apostolic ministry can at least be an alternative. The errors of
the past does (sic) not give us too much hope for the future. However, modern-day
apostolic teams have learned to avoid many of the traps of the past. Apostolic
leadership is not without potential dangers—so is denominational Pentecostalism. But
Pentecostals can no longer ignore this growing alternative.72
The posture of Hayford is perhaps the wisest approach: “So, I have no particular
opposition to people who feel it is important to use the title, but I confess—I don’t
believe the title is that important. What is important is that each apostle Jesus raises up
(even if he doesn’t think he is one) function in the spirit that Jesus demonstrated by His
apostleship. That’s “the right stuff.” And where that happens, His church will have
stronger foundations . . . built upon Him, of course.”73
1 C. Peter Wagner, “New Apostolic Revolution,” The New International Dictionary of Pentecostal and
Charismatic Movements (NIDPCM), ed. Stanley M. Burgess and Eduard M. Van Der Maas (Grand Rapids,
MI: Zondervan, 2002), 930.
2 Ignatius, “Epistle to the Trallians,” Chapter 2, Ante-Nicene Fathers (ANF) (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans,
1979), 1:66; Ignatius, “Epistle to the Magnesians,” Chapter 6, ANF, 1:61.
3 Ignatius, “Epistle to the Magnesians,” Chapter 6, ANF, 61; Ignatius, “Epistle to the Romans,” Chapter 4
ANF, 1:103; Ignatius, “Epistle to the Antiochans,” Chapter 11, ANF, 1:112.
4 “The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles,” 11:3-6, ANF, 7:380.
5 Irenaeus, “Against Heresies,” Book 2, Chapter 2-1-22, ANF, 1:389-392; Tertullian, “Prescriptions
Against Heretics,” Section One, Chapter 30, Chapter 32, ANF, 3:257-258.
6 Eusebius Pamphilis, Ecclesiastical History, Book 3, Chapter 37, Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, ed.
Philip Schaff and Henry Wace (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1979), Series 2, 1:169.
7 James W. Garrett, “Translocal Ministry in the New Testament Church,” a paper delivered at the New
Testament Church Conclave, May 2005, 22. See website: http://www.doulospress.org/pprs.php
8 Garrett, “Translocal Ministry,” 23.
9 Garrett, “Translocal Ministry,” 24.
10 Vinson Synan, “Apostolic Practice,” He Gave Apostles: Apostolic Ministry in the 21st Century, Edgar R.
Lee, ed., (Springfield, MO: Assemblies of God Theological Seminary, 2005), 17.
11 D. W. Dorries, “Catholic Apostolic Church,” NIDPCM, 459.
12 William C. Stevens, “Jesus Our Healer,” CAMW, Mar. 20, 1891, 183.
13 E. L. Blumhofer, “Dowie, John Alexander,” NIDPCM, 587; Nico Horn, “Apostolic Leadership: Renewal
of the Church or Pentecostal Heresy?,” Paper presented at the 21st Annual Conference of the Society for
Pentecostal Studies, Lakeland, Florida, November, 1991, 13.
14 J. R. Goff, Jr., “Apostolic Faith,” Dictionary of Pentecostal and Charismatic Movements (DPCM), ed.
Stanley M. Burgess and Gary B. McGee (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1988), 16-18; E. L. Blumhofer,
“Apostolic Faith Movement,” DPCM, 19-20; S. L. Ware, “Restorationism in Classical Pentecostalism,”
15 Horn, 2-3.
16 Watchman Nee, The Normal Christian Church Life (Anaheim, CA: Living Stream Ministry, 1980).
17 R. M. Riss, “Latter Rain Movement,” DPCM, 532-534.
18 Cited in Horn, 4-5.
19 See the Living Word Ministries website at: www.thelivingword.org.
20 Horn, 14-16. Stevens, along with Bill Britton and Sam Fife, represented a stream of the Latter Rain
Movement that taught the “manifest sons of God” concept, that a group of elite believers would be
manifested as a fully mature, overcoming army in the end times.
21 Mumford had been associated with Elim Bible Institute, which was influential in carrying Latter Rain
teachings into the charismatic movement. Riss, 534.
22 Riss, “Latter Rain Movement,” 534.
23 Derek Prince, “Discipleship, Shepherding and Authority,” New Wine, Feb. 1976, 11.
24 Horn, 18-19.
25 Horn, 8.
26 Bill Hamon, The Eternal Church (Phoenix, AZ: Christian International, 1981).
27 Bill Hamon, Apostles, Prophets and the Coming Moves of God (Santa Rosa Beach, FL: Christian Intl.,
28 Ibid., xv.
29 David Cannistraci, Apostles and the Emerging Apostolic Movement (Ventura, CA: Regal, 1996, 1998).
30 See website at: www.churchfoundationalnetwork.com.
31 See website at: www.apostolicfamilyministries.org.
32 C. Peter Wagner, The New Apostolic Churches (Ventura, CA: Regal, 1998).
33 Wagner, The New Apostolic Churches, 19-20.
34 Ibid., 7-9.
35 Wagner, The New Apostolic Churches, 17; C. Peter Wagner, Changing Church (Ventura, CA: Regal,
36 Ministries Today, Nov./Dec. 2004, 25-28, 30-31.
37 Larry Keefauver, “Acts of the Apostles,” Ministries Today, Nov./Dec. 2004, 84.
38 Wagner, Changing Church, 12-13.
39 Ibid., 137.
40 Wagner and Bill Greig, President of Gospel Light Publications, serve on the Board of Directors of HIM.
See website at: www.harvestim.org
41 See website at www.cicbconference.org
42 Wagner, Changing Church, 37, 111, 112
43 Ibid., 122.
44 Doug Beachem, “The Leadershift,” Ministries Today, Nov./Dec. 2004, 33ff.
45 Edgar R. Lee, ed., He Gave Apostles: Apostolic Ministry in the 21st Century (Springfield, MO:
Assemblies of God Theological Seminary, 2005).
46 As cited in Orrel Steinkamp, “Assessing Current Teachings, Issues, and Events with Scripture,” accessed
online 5/3/99 at http://www.net.pci.com/~ssimpson/second pentecost.html.
47 David Cartledge, The Apostolic Revolution: The Restoration of Apostles and Prophets in the Assemblies
of God in Australia (Paraclete Institute, 2000).
48 Garrett, “Translocal Ministry,” 14; see also James W. Garrett, New Testament Church Leadership (Tulsa,
OK: Doulos Press, 1996). For discussion of various scholarly exegetical views, see Wayne Grudem,
Systematic Theology (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1994), 904-911; Jon Ruthven, “Ephesians 2:20 and
the ‘Foundational Gifts,’” accessed online at http://home.regent.edu/ruthven/220.htm.
49 Grudem, Systematic Theology, 904-911. For a response to Grudem, see Jon Ruthven, “Ephesians 2:20
and the ‘Foundational Gifts,’” accessed online at http://home.regent.edu/ruthven/220.htm.
50 Cannistraci, Apostles and the Emerging Apostolic Movement, 78.
51 Simon G. H. Tan, “Apostles Then and Now,” Journal of Asian Missions, 5:2 (2003), 225-227.
52 Garrett, “Translocal Ministry,” 26-27.
53 As cited in Orrel Steinkamp, “Assessing Current Teachings, Issues, and Events with Scripture,” accessed
online 5/3/99 at http://www.net.pci.com/~ssimpson/second pentecost.html.
54 As cited in Orrel Steinkamp, “Assessing Current Teachings, Issues, and Events with Scripture,” accessed
online 5/3/99 at http://www.net.pci.com/~ssimpson/second pentecost.html.
55 Nico Horn, “Apostolic Leadership: Renewal of the Church or Pentecostal Heresy?”, 21st Annual
Conference of the Society for Pentecostal Studies, Lakeland, Florida, November, 1991.
56 Cannistraci, Apostles and the Emerging Apostolic Movement, 92-93.
57 Ibid., 86-90.
59 Wagner, The New Apostolic Churches, 39-41.
60 Horn, 22.
61 Jack Hayford, “The Apostolic ‘Right Stuff,’” Ministries Today, Nov./Dec. 2004, 98.
62 Horn, 25.
64 Eddie L. Hyatt, “Thinking Biblically About Apostolic Ministry: 5 Popular Misconceptions in the Church
Today,” article excerpted from www.revivalandreformation.org
65 Wagner, Changing Church, 114-118.
66 Kenneth E. Hagin, The Triumphant Church: Dominion Over All the Powers of Darkness (Tulsa, OK:
Kenneth Hagin Ministries, 1993), 201-222.
67 See Global Harvest website at http://www.globalharvestministries.org/home.qry?ID=72&cat=5
69 Wagner, Changing Churches, 143ff.
70 Garrett, 29.
71 Beacham, “The Leadershift,” Ministries Today, Nov./Dec. 2004, 35.
72 Horn, 28-29.
73 Jack Hayford, “The Apostolic ‘Right Stuff,’” Ministries Today, Nov./Dec. 2004, 97.