The Roumanian Pentecostal Church In Recent Literature

The Roumanian Pentecostal Church In Recent Literature

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19

The Roumanian

Pentecostal Church in Recent Literature

David D.

Bundy*

is

minority religious ity

churches,

World. It has

respectfully

from other national agressive

for reasons to be indicated the constitutional freedoms ment of

Roumania,

American and

churches. The

have

brilliantly represented

ces

Church in the Socialist

Apostolica, Pentecostal churches.’ It is an

of considerable vital- and model for other

European

as well as in the Third

maintained its inde- churches, especially

from

large

govern-

Conferen-

It is widely known that the Pentecostal

Republic

of

Roumania,

the Biserica lui Dumnezeu

one of the

largest European

indigenous

movement

which serves as an

inspiration

both eastern and

western,

but

carefully

pendence

multi-national churches in the U.S.A. The church

has,

below,

remained enthusiastic about

accorded

by

the

post-1945

this much to the

chagrin

of certain North

Western

European

Pentecostal and

Baptist

leaders of the Roumanian Pentecostal church

their church and

country

at interna- tional

peace conferences, scholarly theological

conferences and consultations as well as at the Pentecostal

European

and the World Pentecostal Conferences.

At the same time this Pentecostal

difficulties and

partly

due to a dearth of primary

The Roumanian Pentecostal Church has

produced

some remarkable historical3 and

theological pub- lications. The

goals

of this article are to

survey

the

history

of the

Pentecostal

Church,

to

present

recent

scholarly

and

thereby

to foster international

understanding

for the Biserica lui Dumnezeu

Apostolica

and

a contribution to Roumanian historical studies.

partly

due to

language

source materials.

Roumanian

publications

and

appreciation

make

I. An Historical

Within the Roumanian

personal

holiness

finding

themselves

tradition is little

known,2

Overview

Baptist

and

pietist groups

was an interest in

healing,

concerns. In the

village

of Georghe

Bradin and his

wife,

need, began

search-

to the U.S.A.

describing

Orthodox,

at the end of World War I, there

and other

spiritual

Paulis, Arad,

a

Baptist believer,

in physical and

spiritual

ing

for resolution. In

early 1921,

Bradin received a letter from a fellow

villager

who had

emmigrated

the

revivals.4 Somewhat

later,

Bradin received a bro-

by another

and

printed

in

Cleveland, Tennessee,

wrote to the Cleveland address on the brochure

Pentecostal

chure written in Roumanian Pavel Budeanu,

Bradin

Roumanian

expatriate,

U.S.A.5 5

and

1

20

tional

The Bradins

began and

by

members

In

1923,

another

as

president.8 By

1924, tion of national authorities. denied and Pentecostal of Cults

and

Arts on

preached among lavia,”

but Balkans cannot

of Pentecostal

with addi- doctrine.6

1922

was

1924

(at night!)

in the churches.

Budeanu also

received in

September

1922 a letter from Budeanu

clarification and

explication

Pentecostal

meetings

on 10 September

the end of the

year

the

community

could count

thirty

and had even

organized

a choir.’

church

organized

in nearby

Cuvin,

Arad and a fledgling denominational structure was instituted with Bradin

the movement had attracted the atten-

A petition for

legal recognition

worship

was forbidden

by

the

Ministry

29 January 1925.9

The first

baptisms

were held on 16 October

during

the visit of Pavel Budeanu to Roumania. 10 He also wrote a number of hymns and

preached

the Roumanian

minority

in what is now

Yugos-

the

length

of his

activity

in Roumania and the

be ascertained.

Budeanu,

born in

Comlaus,12 Arad,

a

Baptist

was ordained within the context of the Assemblies of God U.S.A.

(10 May 1923)

as a Pentecostal evangelist

a laborer to earn his

living)

but soon

with the

holiness-pentecostal

of

God,

Cleveland. 14 Thus the 1980 news item in

Christianity

a

diplomatic relationship

between the Rou-

Church and the Church of God,

Cleveland,

other U.S. Pentecostal

minister,’3

(he

remained

joined

Today indicating

manian Pentecostal

which caused such

anxiety churches

During

evangelism, were

organized

Glasul

reorganized

Gee, reported

denomination,

the Church

among

relationship.

15

Church in

despite

and

and cities. From

1928,

a

Cuvintul

adevarului)

the seat of the new

was

merely

affirmative of a historic

the 1922 – 1945

period,

the Pentecostal

Roumania remained an

illegal organization. However, the official decrees

forbidding

Pentecostal

worship

such activities continued. Pentecostal churches

in other

provinces

periodical,

adevarului

(becomes

was

published

in Braila. 16 Braila became

church

(22 February 1929),

the Biserica lui Dumne- zeu

Apostolicd,

with Bradin as

president. ?’ By 1935,

Donald

the

peripatetic

British’Pentecostal

theologian

and

author,

7000 Pentecostals in

Roumania,18

a

figure reported also

by

Leonhard

Steiner,

the erudite Swiss Pentecostal theolo-

and historian. 19

During

this

period,

there were

apparently three editions of

Harfa

Bisericilor lui Dumnezeu20 and a number of tracts and brochures

published.2′

even more difficult

Bishop

was

appointed

affairs.22 The

persecutions, disruptions

gian

The situation Orthodox gious

became

government

when in 1938 an minister of reli- of services and

2

caused

only

a

minority accepted there

was,

in effect, no national

worked

the

persecution

Many

several

theologians. Despite the Antonescu

liei (Sept.

Socialist together.

Republic

greatly

21

although

legal

status

by Sandru

reports

that

The churches and

Nor was clergy,

Apostolicd

Penticostala

organized

Vesiitorul

Evanghe-

the

imprisonments

Bradin to seek a certain

union with the

Baptist churches,

this alternative.23 This meant that

organization.

small

groups

of believers were isolated from each other and

as best

they

could on their own

recognisance.24

all of the

persecution

due to the initiative of Orthodox

Lutherans were also

protagonists.2s

The Nazi

regime

of Ion Antonescu

(1940 – 1944)

saw the

of

religious

minorities reach a new

intensity.26

Pentecostal

pastors spent years

in

prison, including

who

emerged

in the

post-war

era as church officers and

the difficulties the church

emerged

from

period

with about

20,000 members.2?

These Pentecostal believers were divided into three main groups,:28 (1)

Biserica lui Dumnezeu

centered in Arad,

comprising

circa

15,000 adherents,

20 May 1945 and

publishing

the

periodical,

1945 –

1948);29(2)

Crestini botezati cu Duhul

sffnt

sau Biserica lui Dumnezeu

Apostolica

with

headquarters

in Bucharest. This church of circa 4500 members

published

at Timisoara a periodical, Lumina

Evangheliei; (3)

Ucenicii Dom- nului Isus Hristos also with

headquarters

at Bucharest com- prised

of about 1500 members.

The need for official

recognition by the new government,

of

Roumania, brought

these churches

The Pentecostals who had

joined

the

Baptists

re- entered Pentecostal ranks,

joining

the Arad

group.3?

A

variety of efforts at

achieving

national

Pentecostal- unity

made

gradual

when the Arad

denomination,

ApostolicY Pen ticostaldreceived

and

legal standing

general congress

of the united churches met 21 June 1951. The church

by

this time was made

up

of about

36,000

believers.33 A

office was

organized

in Bucharest with Alecsie Vamvu

Bradin was chairman of the

newly organ-

church.34

By September 1953, publication

of a new

periodi-

Buletinul Cultului Penticostal

began

under the

editorship of Trandafir Sandru who still holds the same

post.35

The freedom found since 1945 has led to a

deep

and sincere

for and

loyalty

to the

government.

Indeed that loyalty, theologically

based on Romans 13 and Titus

3:1-3,

has been

accepted

as an article of faith

(see Appendix,

This has been

angrily

contested

by political-religious

headway, expedited Biserica lui Dumnezeu recognition

national and Trandafir ized cal,

Sandru;

appreciation

official on 14 November 1950.3′ The first

article

27).36 exiles such

3

22

as R. Wurmbrand37 and Hollenweger has cautioned

against over-generalizations

about the rhetoric of torture and free- dom.3g The World Christian Encyclopedia indicated that church-state relations have not been trouble free.39

Christianity Today

notices indicate similar

problems.40

Durasoff also states that

membership may

not be transfered from the Roumanian Orthodox Church to the Pentecostal Church

(although

the opposite may

be

done).41

Whatever the

limitations,

the church grew by

1971 to circa 80,000 members in 1381 local

congrega- tions.42 The World Christian

Encyclopedia compilers found,

in 1980,

1750

congregations,

101,000 adult members and nearly 100,000

additional adherents.43

The Roumanian Pentecostal Church has been

denigrated by Americans with

respect

to

theological education,

“The preachers

are untrained, as no Bible School exists for their workers. “44 This is however a

particularly myopic

view which considers U.S.

style

Bible schools to be essential structures for theological

and ministerial education.

Fortunately,

the Rou- manian church has been

protected

from U.S. missionaries and has thus been able to be creative in its efforts. The

theological sophistication

of the Roumanian Pentecostal

theologians,

as we shall see below, is as

high

as

anywhere

in the Pentecostal churches.

Theological

education in Roumania has

long

been one of the primary

functions of the various ecclesiastical

periodicals

men- tioned above. Vestitorul

Evanghelei (Sept.

1945 –

1948)

was a primary

contributor to denominational

unity

and to the devel- opment

of a theological consensus. After the 1945

reorganiza- tion,

the Buletinul Cultului Penticostal continued the tradition.

The second method of

training clergy

and other church workers has been a series of seminars that have been conducted intermittently

since 1948. The first was led

by Gheorghe

Bradin ( 1-19 February 1948)

in Arad.45

Throughout

the 1950’s seminars were held in several

strategic

centers in

Roumania, including Bucharest, by Bradin,

Sandru and other

pastors, and, finally during

the

period

March 1974 – March

1976,

a series of four month seminars were conducted for

pastors

as well as other church workers.46

The

opening

of the Seminarul

Teologic

Penticostal

(Pentec- ostal

Theological Seminary)

in Bucharest on 20 November 1976 as a

university

level

theological faculty

was a

major develop- ment in Pentecostal

theological education,

not

only

in Rouma- nia,

but also in the rest of the world.47 The

faculty

offers a four year program

under the direction of the General Council of the

4

23

Church which has

appointed

Trandafir Sandru as director. Stu- dents must confirm their admission after the first

year by exam- ination.

They

must also

complete practical internship

in a series of churches to receive

pastors’

recommendations

necessary

for continuance. 48 The

government

sets the number of students who ultimately may

be admitted to the

program.

The final examina- tion,

after four

years,

covers

dogmatic

and

systematic theology, homiletics

(theoretical

and

practical), pneumatology,

as well as world and Pentecostal

history.49

This

survey

of Roumanian Pentecostal

history

does not

pre- tend to be exhaustive, but to

point

to

possibilities

for additional research. It is

hoped

that crucial documents for Roumanian ecclesiastical and national

history may

be

published

and the bibliography

of the

early period

established.

Furthermore,

the challenge

of

Hollenweger5O

has

yet

to be taken

up.

One of the features of the

past

decade has been a

fleury

of publications

which has established the authors as intellectual leaders in the world Pentecostal movement. Let us now

briefly examine those

publications.

. II. Recent

Theological Scholarship

Since its

beginnings

in

1922,

the Roumanian Pentecostal churches have been involved in

publishing

activities as

they sought

to articulate their vision of the Christian

life,

to establish a united

theological understanding,

and

especially

before

1945, to defend themselves in the face of state church and

government persecution.

From 1945 to

1976,

three editions of the

hymnal, Harfa

Bisericilor lui Dumnezeu

(1946, 1952, 1970)

and a number of brochures, almanacs and calendars were

published

as well as the Buletinul Cultului Pentecostal

(Sept.

1953 –

).

Theological Encyclopedia

In

1976,

a volume entitled Indrumatorul Pastorului52 edited by

Trandafir Sandru53

inaugrated

a new

page

in the

history

of Pentecostal

scholarship

and

scholarly publishing.

This volume contained the communications

presented

at the

theological

and practical

ecclesiastical

polity

consultations held between March 1974 and March 1976. These

comprised

a

reprint

of the state- ment of the church’s faith as well as

essays covering

the entire gammet

of theological study, from

systematic theology,

biblical studies,

and

history,

to

pastoral theology,

Christian

ethics,

and church administration. It is a splendid example of the

discipline of

“theological encyclopedia.”

5

24

Exegesis

and Biblical Studies

Paul and Pauline Literature. The next volume to be

published was Trandafir Sandru’s

study

of the life and work of the

Apostle Paul.s4 This introduction to Paul, Pauline literature and Pau- line

theology

is intended as a guide for

pastors,

informed

lay- men and

seminary

students.

Sandru

begins

with a synthesis of biblical data about Paul’s life

narrating

his activities from the student

years

to his death.55 It takes the Lucan account as the matrix into which the informa- tion

gleaned

from the Pauline

epistles

is placed. This material is briefly

situated in its historical context, but the treatment does not

recognize discrepancies

between the Galatians

autobiogra- phical

data and the narrative in Acts. It does,

however, provide a possibility of

placing

the

pastoral

letters in the

chronology

of Paul’s life and

thereby

of

recognizing

them as authentic. Paul’s death is

postulated

at circa 68 – 68 C.E.56 which allows for additional

trips

to Crete

(Titus 1:5)

and

Nicopolis (Titus 3:12). Patristic evidence for Paul’s

martyrdom

at Rome is presented.57

The second

section, entitled,

“The

Epistolary Activity

for the Apostle

Paul”

gives

a

survey

of each

epistle including

criteria for

authenticity (where seriously disputed),

main themes and concerns of the

writings

and the date and context of

composi- tion.58 The critical stance is consonant with that of conservative Evangelical

writers in North America and Western

Europe.

In the face of

opinion

from the second

century

until the

present, Sandru maintains the Pauline

authorship

of Hebrews

present- ing

a case for his

position

on the basis of internal evidence.59 The

are also considered authentic.6?

pastorals

The author follows the discussion of critical and

introductory issues with a concise

insightful

introduction to Pauline thought.61 Taking

the

recurring phrase, “gospel

of Christ” and parallel expressions (e.g.

“our

gospel”),

Sandru demonstrates and articulates the christocentric

theological understanding

of Paul.62 From this

perspective,

Paul’s

concept

of the

church,

its organization

and

worship,

the role of the

Holy Spirit,

human nature, eschatology,

relations with

government

and the

family, as well as the

great paradoxes

of Pauline

theology (e.g.

law and grace)

are

expounded.

The most extensive treatment is that of the role of the

Holy Spirit.63

Sandru takes as his

starting point

the Pauline reflec- tions on and the Acts accounts of the work of the

Holy Spirit

in the life of Paul. He relates this to the

theology

and

praxis

of the Pentecostal

churches, arguing

that the

spiritual gifts

have a personal

effect but are to be exercised in the context of the

6

25

church and its

ministry.64

Finally

Sandru

provides

a survey of apocryphal Pauline liter- ature,65

a schematic

presentation

of

biographical

and

theologi- cal

data,66

and a detailed

analysis

of Acts 13-14.67

Professor Sandru has the distinction of

being

one of the

very few Pentecostal

theologians

to deal

seriously

with the Pauline literature of the New Testament and the life of Paul. It is an admirable

presentation, clear, concise,

and

precise reflecting

a thorough knowledge

of biblical materials and an

acquaintance with

secondary

literature.68

Peter and Petrine Literature. The second

major exegetical study is that of Pavel Bochian69 on the life,

ministry

and canonical letters attributed to the

Apostle

Pester. 70 The

presentation

is not designed

to be a critical introduction.

Literary problems,

mat- ters of

perspective

between

Gospel

accounts and the

questions of

authenticity

are not raised.

However,

the treatment shows a thorough

awareness of Christian

history

and literature. For example,

the author

acknowledges

the various traditions con- cerning

the end of Peter’s life in

non-polemical

fashion.71 He chooses to deal with the text as it stands. The volume is an inductive, passionate, devotional,

a

reverently

serious

exposi- tion of the biblical texts

pertaining

to Peter. Peter is

presented as a model of what a person of humble

origins

can become when infused with the

Spirit

of God.

In accordance with this theme, the first

chapter,

“Simon Peter before he was

baptised

with the

Holy Spirit”72 presents

selected vignettes

of Peter as he is described in the

Gospels, especially Matthew. The

emphasis

is on Peter’s

experiences,

both

positive and

negative,

as

preparatory

for

ministry.

The second

chapter comprises

a narrative

exegesis

of Acts 1-12.’3 The

story

line of the text

provides

the framework for insightful theological

and

psychological

reflection. Peter is presented

no

longer

as the

hesitant,

sometimes

rash, disciple, but as a person transformed

by

God’s

Spirit leading

the church in Palestine. The convocation at Jerusalem

(Acts 15)74 is briefly discussed as is Peter’s

relationship

with Paul?5

Finally, expositions

are

proffered

of I Peter76 and II Peter.” Once

again,

there is a careful adherence to the biblical text but with

frequent

reference to the New Testament context. Between the discussion of the two

epistles

is an excursus on the character and behavior of

pastors.78

The

pastor,

as Peter

following

the model of Christ, is to be characterized

by

“internal

energy … the

power

of the

Holy Spirit …

for

good

works.”‘9

7

26

identification,

the in

The

pastoral

orientation, scholarly

reflection

the

Holy Spirit)

volumes of

the rather

meager corpus Biblical

History,

biblical

history, geography scholars have made

significant A.

Negoi?a

provided entitled, Tara Sf£tY (The

Bulgar’s

contribution represents

made to describe

Geological, climatalogical,

the

personal

and the Pentecostal

apologetic (baptism

make this volume a model of its

genre.

The Bochian and Sandru are

important

contributions to

of Pentecostal

exegetical

literature.

Geography

and

archeology,

complementary

Holy Land).80

on biblical

events

and

Archeology.

In the area of

two Pentecostal contributions. Emil

Bulgar

and

sections to a volume

history

and

geography

Much effort has been

on the Old

Testament,

the

studies. The weakest of

in which the

document

author

procedes

to these is

author’s use

makes his work difficult.82 testamental and Roman these the author’s

a basic

Evangelical approach.

the context in which the events took

place.

archeological

and

geographical considerations are

emphasized. Contemporaneous

historical

are mentioned. From this introduction to the world of the ancient Near East as it

impinges

a series of

period

that devoted to the

patriarchal period

of the biblical text as a strictly historical

The best sections deal with the inter-

periods

wide

scientific,

interests blend into a powerful

extensive research

apparent

in this section is not documented.

“Biblical

Archeology”

is a model

scholarly synthe- sis. He discusses

archeology

as a

science,84

describes and ana-

Negoita’s

compares

presents

a similar

analysis

cussing discrepency

between

results from Tel-el-Amarna, archeological data,

to the fall of Jerusalem.83 In

historical and

theological presentation. Unfortunately

the

but

biblical narrative. manifest awareness text. The author Testament stopping

lyses

the

major

discoveries and trends in biblical

archeology,85

the biblical and

Babylonian

creation

accounts,86

and

of

deluge

narratives. At each

point

a balanced scientific

presentation

is made.g? For

example,

in dis-

the date of the Exodus,88 he

acknowledges

the wide

the two

commonly suggested

dates

(15th and 13th centuries

B.C.E.). Using

internal biblical

evidence,

and the

Egyptian

historical and

he shows how each

position

can be

argued. He

suggests

that the later date accords better with the evidence

does not

insist, affirming

the

theological

concerns of the

one of the

strengths

of the

theological priority

continues his

presentation through

and inter-testamental

periods

to the New Testament

as did

Bulgar

with the fall of Jerusalem in 70 C.E. His

Indeed,

of the work is the

of the biblical

the Old

8

work is

carefully

27

In

conception

and

documented and reflects an intimate knowl- edge

of Near Eastern

history

and

archeology.

it

compares quite favorably

with those of

Bright89

and

scope, Wright.90

books import

scholars of

matology.92 study

concerning

the and

quality

of

writers or

understanding

of

pneu-

and illustrated

on the

per-

scholars and

patristic

writers of particular interest are those

Pneumatology.

One of the

specialties

of the Pentecostal movement has been

on the work of the

Holy Spirit, especially

of the

Holy Spirit

for

personal spirituality

life. There has been little concern

among

Pentecostal

to

investigate pneumatology

in and of itself. The work

Trandafir Sandru91 is a

major

contribution toward

filling that lacuna and is a work which must be taken into account in all future efforts to

develop

a Pentecostal

It is a refreshing

beautifully printed

in the tradition of the

systematic theologians

son and work of the

Holy Spirit.

Sandru

organizes

his

subject

in four main divisions.

of 13 chapters, “The

Personality

of the

Holy

that the

Holy Spirit

is a

person

with

personal

and

identity,

whose acts are recorded in the

there is effort to base assertions on

Contemporary

as well.

Chapters

the

symbols

for and names of the

Holy Spirit

Bible.94 The author states that the

“metaphors,

symbols, prototypes,

and emb-

the character and characteristics of the

Holy Spirit providing insights

which would be difficult or

impossible to

express

in less

symbolic language.

The

Gospel of John

and Acts

provide

the

greatest

number of names and

symbols

ana-

With this

emphasis

the author retains the

mystery

of the

that human

intelligence

can know but not

the divine.

Professor

The first section Spirit” argues characteristics

scriptures.93 Throughout biblical evidence. are often cited which discuss found in the

analogies,

lems”95 illustrate

lysed.

Holy Spirit, allowing define or delimit

understanding

parables, allegories

to a restrained

dispensational

a Pente-

as the sanctification

After two short

pages assenting

of

“holy history”96

the author

presents

costal

interpretation

of Pentecost

(Acts

1 and

2),97 and explains the

purpose

of this new

dispensation

and

of

believers,

a new

way

of life for the Christian

“the fruit of the

Spirit.”98

then deals with the

gifts

of the

Holy Spirit, discussing

and communicative

aspects

of the

both on

personal

and collective levels.99 The next

the book

presents

the “other works” of the

Spirit

as

in the church

through

the offices of

apostles, prophets,

empowerment characterized

by

Sandru the illuminative, Spirit’s work, section of active

putative

9

28

evangelists, pastors

and deacons.100 The

Spirit’s

role in the

proclamation

of the

Gospel

is discussed in this context.

Finally

there is a succinct

presentation

of the

Holy Spirit

in

post

New Testament

history, tracing

the concern for

spirituality

through

the life of the church,

dealing primarily

with reform

movements and

major theologians (i.e. Irenaeus, Augustine,

Thomas

Aquinas,

Luther, Xavier, Calvin,

E.

Irving, Finney

and

Moody).’°’

The

major

focus is the

history

of the Pentecostal

movement,

its

Wesleyan

and Keswickian

heritage,

its definition

by

Parham and arrival in Roumania.

The breath of perspective adds richness to a style of presenta-

tion which from the

pen

of a less erudite author could be

tedious. Sandru’s

presentation

is

careful, analytic,

and reflec-

tive. It is an

encyclopedic analysis

of the biblical data on the

Holy Spirit.

Ecclesiology.

Paul Bochian102 has

provided perhaps

the most serious dis-

cussion of

ecclesiology

ever

produced

within the Pentecostal

traditions. The

approach carefully

balances the data

provided

by

the author’s

heritage,

the biblical record and the

poles

of

personal

societal concerns.

The author

begins

with a survey of the biblical data about the

church and the role of the church in the world and of the

individual within the Christian

community.’°3

Considerable

attention is given to the role of

pastor,

both to its

responsibili-

ties and the

temptations

afforded.’o°

This

portrait

of the Christian

pastor

is then related to the

larger theological

themes of the Christian tradition. The

pas-

toral role is largely grounded in the

concepts

of trinity, christol-

ogy

and the

authority

of the

scriptures.

105 However,

two other

factors are crucial: the faith of the

community

and the

liturgy.

106

The faith of the

community

is seen first in the model of the first

Christians and then carried on in the

present through believing,

repentance

and

forgiveness

as evidenced in the sacraments of

baptism

and the eucharist.

The

liturgy, “worship

in Spirit and Truth”

provides

substance

to the

pastoral

role as the

community prays, sings

and meditates

together. 107

Both the faith and the

liturgy

are

part

of the minis-

try

of the

Holy Spirit

to the Church. It is expected that

partici-

pation

in the

community

and

leadership

therein will be concom-

itant with demonstrations of “fruit of the

Spirit,” “gifts

of the

Spirit”

and holiness. 108

‘The life of the Church is to be reflected also in its social dimensions. The Christian

family

is to be a center for the

prac-

10

tice of Christian concerned

responsibilities

be

individual is to and virtue.”1″ Part

hol.?’2

cautioning against

This life in

community eschatological hope. Following Scriptures (including personages Christian

see

expected

29

.

citizenship

and fulfillment of

quality.”

These

of God. Each

by “constancy, peace

ourselves

and the abuse of alco-

document

which no one will

in the tradi-

values and virtues.

109 The

Christian is also to be

that

his/ her

national

patriotic

of the

highest

duties are to be

discharged fully

to the honor

lead a life characterized

of this includes to “… conduct

becomingly”

as regards

promiscuousness

The author cites

approvingly

a

government

the deleterious effects of alcohol abuse.

“3

and in

society

is to be lived in

light

of

the models

provided

in the

from Enoch to

Mary)

the

is to strive to be

ready

for the eschaton, “to strive for peace

with all

men,

and for holiness without

the Lord.””4

Thus,

Bochian

presents

an

ecclesiology grounded

tion of the

community,

in its faith and

liturgy

and oriented toward

eschatology.

It is an active

ecclesiology.

Individuals are

to be involved in

living

out the

implications

of their faith in their homes and national life as well as in the Church.

The

presentation

is

thorough

concerned

with

the

spirituality

and

responsibilities

it is not individualistic. The social nexus is always taken

account. It articulates a Pentecostal vision of the Church which makes

pneumatology

within the

larger

framework

trinitarian. There is no bifurcation of theoretical and practical.

in

community

of individual and

group

life is articulated in light of and based in the classical Christian affirmations.

vidual, into

central,

carefully tionally

Christian

living

aspects

and

carefully

nuanced. While

of the indi-

but

places pneumatology

of

theology.

It is func-

encompassing

all

Theology

Sacramental

One of the recent volumes Pentecostal Church is that ship

and

specifically

to the structures of the church

Four foci

guide

the

presentation. effort is

ments

Secondly,

data

context,

published by

the Roumanian

of Alecsie Vamvu”5 devoted to wor- to the rites which define and

give meaning

The

de-facto elaboration the Roumanian

community. “6.

The first is theological.

made to articulate the

theological

basis for the sacra-

and other acts of

worship

of the

community

of faith.

there is the intentional

presentation

of the biblical

illustrative of the

practice

of the

early

church. In this

the

development

of the

concepts

of worship and

liturgy in the Old and New Testaments is discussed. There is also a

of

worship

Pentecostal Church. As

such,

the volume is

and

liturgical patterns

within

11

30

liturgy.

Finally,

the

important

tome

provides guidelines ship experiences. Bible

readings illustrations. 117

The first section dedication

is not a

effort to understand acts. This

understanding “salvation but text.

Christianizing describe

for the

history

of Pentecostal

for the

clergy

to lead Pentecostal wor-

There are statements of

polity, suggested

and in

Appendix

8 a series of sermon

presentation

organism

through

descriptions water; (3) eucharist; ing

prayers. 121

(4) washing

describing

the theme of acts of

18 It

but a sensitive

of these

scope

of

con-

himself with a

but seeks to

careful

of the book

developes

and

worship

as reflected in the Old Testament.

mere

recounting

of the biblical

narratives,

the

symbolism

and

significance

has an

eye

on the entire

history,”

the focus is on the Old Testament

In other words, the author does nor content

superficial

of the Old

Testament,

how God was

working

in the consciousness of Israel to develop

a worshipping

community.

The

majority

of the work is devoted to an

equally

of the New Testament

developments.’ 19

There is first of all an overview of the nature of the church as a

living

assembled

by God,

constituted

through organization and internal

disciplinary structures,

and which is reflected

a personal

knowledge

of God, a holy

life, and

service in the context of

community.?2?

Thereafter are

programmatic

of individual

“acts:”(1) ordination; (2) baptism

in

of

feet; (5) marriage; (6) bless-

of children;

(7) annointing

the sick with

oil; (8) funerals; (9)

In each

instance,

the author details the

symbolism attendant to the act and its

purpose

and function within the community

of

faith, presenting

the relevant biblical

data,

and

the

appropriate

mode of

practice.

Let us take for

example,

the

“washing

of feet. “‘ 22 The Rou- manian Pentecostal Church observes Jesus’ admonition as

in John 13:1-13 that the ritual of “washing

within the Christian

community.

It celebrates the virtues of humility, love and

purity

within the Church as well as that of service. It is consonant with the biblical structures for community

acts of

worship

as reflected

Pauline

description

of the Church. The

liturgical

with

baptism

and the

eucharist,

is not limited to the

church,

but

a concrete witness to Christian values for those outside

It is to be celebrated in

conjunction

and in order” under the direction

characterized

recorded be observed

permits

the

community.

eucharist, “decently pastor

in an

atmosphere

The volume is a remarkable sacramental

theology

within

of feet’ is to

in the

Gospels

and the

function,

as

with the

of the

by prayer

and

worship. pioneering

effort in the field of the Pentecostal traditions. It is

12

and

thoughtful

grounded

31

of the

“why”

as well biblical in orienta-

tion and

deeply

and

distinctively cal life

aware of and, of view.

eminent

prudent

in its

presentation

as the “what.”The intent is to be thoroughly

in

congruence

with the New Testament church. It is

in the traditions and

liturgi-

of the Roumanian Pentecostal

church,

but the author is

to a certain

extent,

in

dialogue

with other

points

The book establishes Pastor Alecsie Vamvu as a pre-

Pentecostal

theologian

and

liturgist.

Conclusion

The Roumanian Pentecostal

This church

Church has

produced

leaders

churchmen and

evangelists,

theologians

and writers.

traditions. The

history

scholarship world-wide provides will be undertaken ing

of

and scholars who are not

only good

but also

competent, careful, thoughtful

has demonstrated that there need be no

dichotomy between the revivalist and

scholarly

and

of this church deserves to be better known in the

Pentecostal movements.

a step in that

direction,

to increase our

knowledge

this

significant

Pentecostal tradition.

It is hoped that this article and that additional research

and understand-

13

32

APPENDIX

The “Declaration of Faith” of the Roumanian Pentecostal

rule of faith and conduct

3) conceived of

1.31-35;

Acts 2.29-33, 4)

God created both

5) After the creation the fall of a third

Church:123

is verbally inspired

by

God

authoritative

existing

in three Persons:

interceding

for us

(Luke

1) The

Bible

(or Holy Scriptures)

and is the revelation of God to man; the infallible

(II

Tim.

3.15-17).

2) There is only

one

God, eternally

the

Father,

Son and

Holy Spirit (the Holy Trinity) (I John 5.7).

Jesus Christ is the

only begotten

Son of the

Father,

the

Holy Spirit

and born of the

virgin Mary.

He was

crucified, died,

was

buried,

and raised from the dead.

Forty days

after His resurrection he ascended to Heaven and now stands at the

right

hand of the

Father,

I John

2.1).

the material world and the

angels,

which are

spiritual beings.

God is the Creator and the Architect of the whole universe

(Gen. 1.1;

Ps.

104.4).

of the

angels,

Lucifer’s rebellion entailed

of the

angels.

The cause of the Fall was the sin of

pride (Is. 14.12-14;

Jud.

6;

Rev.

12.4-9).

Man is the crown of creation and God’s

personal

work. Man was created in God’s

image

and likeness

(body,

soul and spirit) (Gen. 2.4-7).

Since the first man

disobeyed

entered into the world

(Rom. 5.12).

meaning

another

way.

Sin

brought

the curse

falling upon

the whole of mankind.

6)

7)

freedom of choice

willingly

or follow

consequences,

(Gen. 2.16; 3.14-24).

His kindness

.

God’s

commandment,

sin

Man is endowed with that he can either serve God

about serious

by sending

His Son into the

God’s

grace

is

.

8)

God showed

world as a sacrifice for mankind’s

redemption.

His unlimited kindness and love which teach us to

and worldliness and lead a temperate, just

embodied

by forsake heathenism

9) Repentance

and

holy

life.

(John 1.17; Ephes. 2.5-9).

means the

acceptance

of God’s

grace through the sinner’s

turning

back to God. It is

accompanied by

the confession of sins.

(Mark 1.5;

John

15.7;

Acts

17.39).

The

receiving

of the Lord Jesus Christ

as personal

Saviour

about

justification. (Rom. 10.9-10; 5.9-11).

The new birth is a spiritual transformation

produced by the

Holy Spirit

and the Word of God.

(John 3.3-5;

II Cor.

5.17). It entails the

renewing

of

mind,

soul and the whole life.

brings

10)

14

33

11)

In the name of the

Holy Trinity, baptism

is

granted

to those

persons

who foresake their sins and

accept

the

redemption offered

through

the sacrifice of Jesus Christ.

Baptism

is subse- quent

to the confession of a clean heart.

(Math. 28.19-20;

Acts 16.30-33;

I Pet.

3.21).

Believers’ children are

given

a blessing

(Mark. 10.16)

accord- ing

to Num. 6.24-26.

12) Sanctification, namely

the

thorough

observance of a holy life,

has to be the constant aim of all believers. Sanctification includes the

rejection

of

anything

that

may

stain our

thoughts, heart, eyes

and ears. “But the fruit of the

Spirit

is

love, joy, peace, longsuffering, gentleness, goodness,

faith, meekness, temperance. Against

such there is no law”.

(Gal. 5.22-23).

Sanc- tification

begins

at conversion and continues

throughout

the believer’s life.

Smoking

and alcoholic drinks are

strictly

forbid- den.

(Prov. 20.1; 23.29-32;

Is.

28.7; 55.2;

I Cor.

5.11; 6.10; 10.31-32;

II Cor.

7.1; Ephes. 5.3-9; John 1.21).

13) Prayer

and

fasting

are

ways

of

communicating

with God (Acts 2.42) through

which the believer

may enjoy

God’s

prom- ises.

(Luke 11.13;

Mark

17.21;

Acts

14.23;

I Cor.

11.27).

14)

The Lord’s

Supper

was instituted

by

the Saviour in rememberance of His death and it consists of unleavened bread and nonalcoholic wine. (Math. 26.26-29; I Cor.

11.23-26).

The two elements of the

Supper

have the value of the

body

and blood of the Lord Jesus.

(I

Cor.

11.27-29).

15) After

the

Holy Supper,

the Lord washed the

disciple’s

feet. It is recommended that believers observe this

practice, showing humility

and

brotherly love,

and their obedience to the Lord’s commandments.

(John 13.1-17).

It is called

“washing

the saints’

feet”.

(Tim. 5.10).

16) Baptism

in the

Holy Spirit

took

place

at Pentecost. It is a personal experience

with God which consists of

receiving

heav- enly power. (Acts 1.4-5).

“And

they

were all filled with the

Holy Ghost and

began

to

speak

with other

tongues

as the

Spirit gave them utterance”.

(Acts 2.4).

The

baptism

with the

Holy Spirit was

promised

to all believers.

(Acts 2.39).

17)

There are nine

gifts

of the

Holy Spirit,

as follows: “For to one is

given by

the

Spirit

the word of

wisdom;

to another the word of knowledge by the same

Spirit;

to another the

working

of miracles;

to another

prophecy;

to another

discerning

of

spirits; to another divers kinds of tongues; to another the

interpretation of

tongues”. (I

Cor.

12.8-10).

18) Prayer

for the sick and

anointing

with oil were instituted by

Jesus Christ and His

apostles.

These methods are not incom-

.

15

34

patible

with medical

call for the elders of the church; anointing

science. ‘Is

any

sick

among you?

Let him

and let them

pray

over

him,

him with oil in the Name of the Lord. And the

prayer of faith shall save the sick, and the Lord shall raise him

up;

and if he have committed sins,

they

shall be

forgiven

him”.

(James

5.14-15).

19)

The Church

iour ;

it consists of all believers.

is a divine

institution,

of God

1.22; 5.23-25;

20)

The ministers presbyters

prayer

and The deacons assist

21 ) The discipline Christian

morality proved. They

of

of

founded

by

the Sav-

The term has two

meanings:

It

represents

the

its

principles

at the (Acts 20.28;

Hebr.

12.23; Ephes.

also called

through

local church and universal Church

(I

Cor.

1.2).

kindgom

on

earth, striving

to

apply

level of human

relationships.

Rom.

14.17).

the Church are the

pastors,

or

bishops,

and deacons.

They

are ordained

the

laying

on of hands.

(Ephes. 4.11;

I Tim.

4.14).

the

pastors. (Acts 6.3-6).

the Church

requires

the observance of

and the

judging

of members whose

guilt

is

can be deprived of certain

rights,

i.e.

participation in the Lord’s

Supper

and can even be excluded from the Church. (Math. 18.15-17).

is a biblical

principle.

the church and work of God.

(I

Cor. 16.1-2; Hebr.

13.16).

God is

to a tenth of our income.

(Gen. 14.20;

II Chron.

31.5;

22) Tithing

entitled

Math.

3.10;

Luke

18.12).

20.19;

Acts

20.7;

Revel. Church has services during

the

year (New Year, Resurrection,

the Ascension,

ony marriage. the conditions set

Each believer has to

support

(John

the

are

permitted only upon

23) Sunday

is considered the

day

of the

Lord,

when all believ- ers should attend the divine services of the local church.

1.10).

In addition the

Sunday,

on

Thursday,

and on

special

occasions

the Lord’s

Baptism, Easter,

the

Pentecost and

Christmas).

24)

The

religious wedding ceremony

succeeds the civil cerem-

Divorce and

remarriage

forth in the Bible.

(Mat. 19.3-9). Concubinage is forbidden.

command that teaches us to dress decently,

credit the Church of God in the

eyes

of the world.

(I Tim. 2.9-10; I Pet.

3.1-16;

Rom.

12.2;

James

4.4).

26) Eschatology:

The

Holy Scriptures

the Lord Jesus Christ. Two

25) Modesty

is a biblical

avoiding

the ornaments

and the

make-up

which dis-

speak

of the second

stages

can be

coming

of distinguished:

a)

The

Rapture

b)

The

appearance

of the Church

of Jesus Christ in the clouds in the

sky.

16

35

The Lord Jesus Christ will

reign

over the earth a thousand years.

Satan will be bound.

Finally,

the universal

resurrection, the

judgement

at the white

throne,

and

eternity, everlasting

life for the

just,

and eternal

punishment

for the wicked.

(I

Thes. 4.13-17;

Rev.

20.5-15; 21.1-27).

27)

The

government

is established

by God,

and must be respected

and observed.

(Rom. 13.1-7;

Tit.

3.1-3).

*David

Bundy

serves as the Collection

Development

Librarian and as Assistant Professor of Christian

Origins

at

Asbury Theological Seminary.

He is a Ph.D. Candidate at the Catholic University

of Leuven in

Belgium.

I David B. Barrett, et al. World Christian

Encyclopedia.

A Compara- tive Study of Churches and

Religions

in the Modern World A. D. 1900 – 2000 (Nairobi, Oxford, New York: Oxford

University Press, 1982), 588. Hereafter, World Christian

2The first author to

Encyclopedia.

provide significant

information was Walter J. Hollenweger,

Handbuch der

Pfingstbewegung (Inaug.

Diss.

Zurich, 1965). Hereafter, Hollenweger,

Handbuch.

Hollenweger suggested, § 05.25,

that a “thorough

sociological, psychological

and

theological

of the Roumanian Pentecostal movement” would be most fruit-

study

ful. His suggestion has not been taken

up. The Roumanian Pentecostal Church is not mentioned in many of the standard works on the world wide Pentecostal movments, such as Donald Gee, Wind and Flame (Nottingham:

Assemblies of God

Publishing House, 1967), idem,

The Pentecostal Movement (Luton: Assemblies of God

Publishing House, 1949);

Nils

Bloch-Hoell, Pinsebevegelsen (Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, 1956);

J.T. Nichol, The Pentecostals

(Plainfield,

N.J.:

Logos, 1966); W.J.

Hollenweger,

The Pentecostals: The Charismatic Movement in the Churches

(Minneapolis: Augsburg, 1972). There are only cursory notices in: Gordon F. Atter, The Third Force 3rd. ed. (Peterborough, Ont.: the

College Press, 1970);

Charles W. Conn, Where the Saints Have Trod. A History of Church of God Missions

(Cleveland: Pathway Press, 1959)

and Charles E. Jones, A Guide to the Study of the Pentec- ostal Movement

(ATLA Bibliography Series, 6; Meteuchen N.J.

and London: The Scarecrow Press and ATLA,

1983) who provides

refer- ence

only to the present periodical,

Buletinul Cultului Penticostal, and to the account

by S. Durasoff of his

visit to Roumania, Pente- cost Behind the Iron Curtain popular

(Plainfield,

N.J.:

Logos, 1972). 3Trandafir

Sandru, “Rumanien,”

Die Pfingstkirchen, Selbstdarstel- lung,

Dokuments, Kommentare

hrsg.

W.J.

Hollenweger

Die Kirchen der Welt,

7; Stuttgart: Evangelisches Verlagswerk, 1971) 82-90, (Hereafter, Sandru, Rum3nien),

and idem Biserica lui Domnezeu Apostolicd

Penticostala din Romania

(Bucharest:

Editura Cultului Penticostal, 1982), (Hereafter, Sandru, BLD) English

translation: The Pentecostal

Apostolic

Church

of

God in Romania

(Bucharest: n.p.,

17

36

Sandru,

PAC).

Cf. review

by

D.

Bundy,

EPTA

1982), (Hereafter,

Bulletin

2( 1983), 35-37.

4Sandru, BLD, 26; Sandru Rumanien,

83. This letter has

not, to my knowledge,

been

published.

5Pavel Budeanu, Adevarul biblic

(Cleveland: I have been unable to locate a

copy.

Cf.

n.p., n.d.).

Sandru, BLD, 29, Sandru, PAC, Sandru, Rum2inien,

83. The accounts

present

a

27, lem. BLD and PA C indicate the letter and brochure historiographical arrived

prob- Roumania before June 1922. Rumiinien the

together

in

suggests

letter arrived in 1921 and the brochure arrived in the summer of 1922. There well have been two letters

may

describing

the Pentecostal revivals. Neither

has, to

my knowledge,

been

published.

6Sandru, BLD, 29, PAC, 27, Rumänien,

83.

7Sandru, BLD, 29, PAC, 29, Rumänien,

84.

8Sandru, BLD, 29, PAC,

29.

9Sandru, BLD, 29, PAC,

29. The

decree,

as cited

by Sandru,

indi- cates a 14 brochure,

Declarareafundamentului

adevarat ration of Fundamental page had been

(Decla-

Truths)

IOSandru, BLD, 29, PAC,

29.

published.

“Charles W. Conn, Where the Saints Have Trod, A

Church

History of

of God

Missions

(Cleveland: Pathway Press,

With- out doubt there were other

foreign

contacts

1959), 254.

especially

with Pentecostal even with the Bible School in

European

theologians, perhaps

but I have been unable to document such

Danzig, mention of Roumania or of Budeanu in the second

relationships.

There is no

edition of Conn, Where the Saints Have Trod…

(Cleveland: Press,

Sandru, BLD, 29, PAC,

29.

Pathway 1977).

‘3Hollenweger, Handbuch, §

05.25.003.

‘4Sandru, Rumåonien,

84.

‘5 Christianity Today 24, 19 (Nov. 7, 1980), pp.

92 [1393], 94 (1395].

‘6Sandru, BLD, 32, PAC,

31. Sandru, Rumanien, 85 – 86, gives the date as 1929.

“Sandru, BLD, 32, PAC,

31.

‘8Donald

Gee, Upon All Flesh (Springfield: Assemblies of God Pub- lishing House, 1932),

23 -24.

‘9Leonhard Steiner, Mit folgenden Zeichen. Eine

Mission fUr

Darstellung

der Pfingstbewegung (Basel: Verlag

das volle

Evangelium,

1954), 205.

zogandru, Romanien, 86, reports

editions with and without notes. The fourth edition was published at Tim?oara: Vestitorul

1946. I have not seen

Evangheliei,

any of the early

editions. Cf. Sandru, BLD, 48 -50. PA C, 2′ 47.

Sandru, BLD, 34, PAC,

32. No details from this period,

other than are

bibliographic

periodicals,

available.

22Hollenweger, Handbuch, § 05.25.003; Sandru, Rumänien,

86.

23Sandru, Rumdnien,

86.

24Sandru, Rumänien,

86.

25Hollenweger, Handbuch, §

05.25.003. This

may

indicate that members of the expatriate German Lutheran church were converting to

18

37

the Pentecostal movement. It is impossible, at this

point,

to ascertain whether or not German Pentecostal literature was circulating in that community.

26Sandru, Rumänien,

87.

27Sandru, Rumänien,

87. Hollenweger,

Handbuch,

there had been

§ 05.25.003, sug- gests 60,000 secret

in the The account of van der “From

baptisms pre-1944 period.

Bijl,

Behind the Iron

Curtain,”

Pentecost no. 67 (1964)., 10, from which this data comes, is, however, trium- phalist

in tone. Whatever the

number,

it

clearly

is significant that so

many members

emerged

in good

standing

and could serve as the base for the post-1944 growth.

Cf. Trandafir

Sandru,

“About 500 Pentecostal Churches in Roumania,” Pentecost no. 6 ( 1948), 5.

28This data is from

Sandru, Rumönien, 88,

unless otherwise indicated.

.

29Sandru, BLD, 36, 48, PAC, 36,

45. This

periodical

was edited

by Trandafir Sandru. Sandru, Rumönien,

88, gives

the first issue as August

1945. I have been unable to

verify

which date is correct but tentatively accept

the more

recently published

date.

3oSandru, Rumänien,

88.

31Sandru, BLD, 37, PAC, 36, Rumönien, 88.

32Sandru, BLD, 37, PAC, 36.

33Sandru, BLD, 37, PAC, 36.

34Sandru, BLD, 37, PAC, 36.

35Sandru, BLD, 37, PAC, 37, Rumänien, 89. Cf., Jones, Guide, no. 1754.

36Trandafir

Sandru,

“Good News From

Roumania,” Pentecost no. 74 ( 1976), 6.

Cf. also Sandru, Rumönien,

89, Sandru BLD, 8, 15, 56 – 60 and Sandru PAC,

8, 15, 54 –

58.

3’Cited in S.

Durasoff,

Pentecost Behind the Iron Curtain

(Plani- field : Logos,

1972), 72. N.B.:

Wurmbrand is not a Pentecostal.

38Hollenweger, Handbuch, §05.25.003.

Cf. Gordon F.

Atter,

The Third Force 3rd. ed.

(Peterborough,

Ont.: The

College Press, 1970), 188 (Undocumented).

39 World Christian

Encyclopedia,

587. Cf.

Durasoff, Pentecost Behind the Iron Curtain, 65 – 73.

40Christianity Today 25, 13 (July 17, 1981), 93

Cf. also, Alan Scarff,

“Police Pressure on Roumanian

[990].

Christians

Grow,”

Christian- ity Today 26,

3 (February 5,

1982),

84 – 85. The latter article does not specifically

mention Pentecostals.

4?Durasoff,

Pentecost Behind the Iron Curtain, 66.

42Sandru, Rumanien,

89.

Hollenweger,

Handbuch, 05.25.003, 43

800 churches and

§ reported 80,000

members.

World Christian

Encyclopedia,

588. There are also numerous Roumanian Orthodox charismatics as well as the

Movement” which is Pentecostal in doctrine.

“Gypsy Evangelical

Sandru, BLD, 39, PAC, 37, is more

conservative

listing,

“785

organized churches,

142 and about

pastors

150,000 believers,

44Durasoff,

Pentecost

including

children.”

Behind the Iron Curtain, 68.

45Sandru, BLD,

41. The date in Sandru,

PAC, 40 is misprinted.

19

38

46Sandru, BLD,

41 – 42, PAC, 40 -41.

47D.

Bundy,

“Historical

Perspectives

on the

Development

of the Eurpoean

Pentecostal

Theological Association,”

Pneuma 2:2 ( 1980), 20. Cf. Sandru, BLD, 44 – 47, PAC, 41 – 44. On

Malcolm “Trends in

European theological concerns see Hathaway, Ministerial

Training,” Papers

Presented at the Second Meeting

of the European

Pentecostal Theological

Association, Brussels, Belgium 31 January – 2

February 1980 ed. D. Bundy

(Leuven:

Institute of University

1980),

16 – 27.

Ministry,

– 48Sandru, BLD, 45, PAC,

42.

49Sandru, BLD, 47, PA C, 44.

50See above, note 2.

5’Sandru, BLD,

48 – 50, PAC, 45 – 46. See above note 20.

Editura Cultului

Penticostal, 1976). Cf. Sandru, BLD,

S2(Bucurejti,

50 – 51, PAC, 46.

53W.J.

Hollenweger

in his introduction to

Sandru, Rumänien, 83, provides

the following biographical data: Trandafir Sandru

( 1924 – ) was born at Secas

(Arad)

and studied

history

at the

After

University

of Bucharest

specializing

in ancient

history. graduation,

since

1945, he served as editor of two periodicals (see above), as General

Secretary, and Pastor at Bucharest. A prolific and erudite author, he has been director of the Pentecostal

Theological Seminary

since 1976. He has preached

at international Pentecostal

congresses

and is a member of the

European

Pentecostal

Theological

Association. He and P. Bochian (see below)

have

represented

their church and

government

at interna- tional

peace

conferences at Bucharest

(25

-26 November

1981) and at Stockholm 54

(April 1983).

Viata si invq,tàíura

apsotolului

Pavel Editura Cultului Penticostal,

(Bucurejti:

19’77), 200 pps., bibliography pp.

196 – 197.

Hereafter, Sandru,

Pavel. Cf. review

by D. Bundy,

EPTA Bulletin

2, (1983), 83 – 84.

55Sandru, Pavel;

9 – 85.

56Sandru, Pavel, 83,

192.

57Sandru, Pavel, 75, 76, et passim.

58Sandru, Pavel, 86,

116.

59Sandru, Pavel,

113 – 114.

60Sandru, Pavel,

106 – 112.

6′ Sandru, Pavel,

117 – 177.

62Sandru, Pavel,

123 – 127 et passim.

6JSandru, Pavel,

136 – 150.

64Sandru, Pavel,

147 – 150.

6sSandru, Pavel,

178.

66Sandru, Pavel,

178 – 189.

67Sandru, Pavel,

190 – 191.

6gSandru, Pavel,

196 – 197 provides select

bibliography.

69In a “Postfai’6” to the volume described below, note 70, Trandafir Sandru recounts that Bochian was born 18 July 1918. With his parents he became an

early

adherent of the Pentecostal movement and was baptized

as a

teenager

on 6

September

1931

by

Lela

Gheorge.

He

20

39

became active in the church which was then

illegal,

and

during 1938, was arrested for

preaching

a funeral

service, sentenced to three and a half

years

in prison and fined. Later with the

in he was

reorganization

and zation of the church

legali-

1945, ordained a minister. From 1951 1 – 1962,

he

pastored

in

Arad-Bujac. In

1956 he was chosen Vice- President of the Roumanian Pentecostal Church. After the death of

Gheorghe Bradin,

he became

President,

a post in which he still serves in addition to pastoral

responsibilities.

7OPavel Bochian,

Viala,

activitatea si invdidturile

apostolului

Petru with a

“Postfata”

by T. Sandru

149 Hereafter Bochian Petru.

(Bucure?ti ?Cultul

Penticostal, 1981)

pps. Cf.

the review of D. Bundy, EPTA Bulletin 4 ( 1985).

7’Bochian, Petru,

144 – 146.

‘ZB.ochian, Petru,

7 – 45.

‘3Bochian, Petru,

47 – 93.

74Bochian, Petru,

85 – 90.

75Bochian, Petru,

91 – 93.

76Bochian, Petru,

97 – 126.

77Bochian,’Petru,

131 – 143.

78Bochian, Petru,

127 – 130.

79Bochian, Petru,

127

8OEmil Bulgar and A.

Negoita,

Din

punct

de vedere bilbic, istoric si arheologic. Cursi de seminar.

z Tara SJÎnti1.

Preface

by Trandafir Sandru

)Buchurelti:

Seminarul

Teologic.Penticostal,

198 L 462

pps. Cf. review of D. Bundy, EPTA Bulletin 2 ( 1983) 54 – 55. The volume is divided into two distinct

parts:

uGeografia 1i

istoria

biblidí (pp.

6

243) by E. Bulgar (hereafter, Bulgar, Geografia)

and

“Arheologia

biblica” (pp.

244 – 258) by A. Negoita

(hereafter, Arheologia).

Classi- fied

bibliography, pp.

454 – 458.

Negoita,

8’Bulg-ar Geografia,

10 – 126.

82Bulgar Geografia,

126 – 156.

.

83Bu1gar Geografia,

204 – 243.

84Nego?a,

Arheologia,

245 – 252.

85Negoiti, 86Negoita,

Arheologia,

253 – 263.

Arheologia,

264 – 268.

87Negoaa,

Arheologia,

269 – 272.

88Negoi¡à’,

Arheologia,

291 – 292.

g9John

Bright,

A History

of Israel 2nd ed. (New

York:

9oGeorge Wright,

The Bible and the Ancient Near East

(New

York:

9’See above note 53.

92Trandafir Sandru,

Pneumatologie,

Persona si Lucarea Duhului Sf nt (Bucuresti:

Cultul

Penticostal, 1979) 302 pp’s. Bibliography, pp. 292 – 296. Hereafter, Sandru,

Pneumatologie.

Cf. review of D. Bundy, EPTA Bulletin 3 (9184), 143 – 145.

93Sandru, Pneumatologie,

15 – 154.

94Sandru, Pneumatologie,

43 – 94.

95Sandru, Pneumatologie, 43.

96Sandru, Pneumatologie,

95 – 96.

97Sandru, Pneumatologie,

97 – 99, et passim.

21

40

9gSee especially, Sandru, Pneumatologie,

134 – 143.

99Sandru, Pneumatologie,

155 – 210.

10OSandru, Pneumatologie,

211 – 260.

10 I Sandru, Pneumatologie,

263 – 271. The volume is completed by appendices including

a schematic outline of the material

presented

in the

book,

an index of Hebrew and Greek terms, a glossary of technical terms,

a

dictionary

index of

names,

a

subject

index and extensive bibliography.

It is the bibliography which one of the major strengths

of the book. The author draws

exemplifies

upon

and reacts to literature written in English, German, French, Italian, Spanish, Roumanian and Russian.

iozpavel Bochian, Biserica lui Dumnezeu

Cultul Penticostal, 379

si

aspecta

din viata ei (Bucuresti: [1980]). pps. Hereafter,

Bosnian Bisrric£

?o3Bochian, Biserica, 9 – 30.

1°4Bochian Biserica, 31 – 44, 51 – 54. the other

leadership roles, e.g. deacons and deaconesses are discussed

pp.

45 – 49. et passim.

/05 Bochian, Biserica, 54 – 76, et passim.

‘°6Bochian, Biserica, 82 – 95.

?olgochian, Biserica,

121 – 145.

108Bochian. Biserica,

149 – 151. See also the detailed

discussions, pp. 152 – 179.

‘o9Bochian, Biserica,

54 – 76, et passim.

I/O Bochian, Biserica,

205 – 208: This is part of the Roumanian Pen- tecostal creed. See Appendix article 27.

‘”Bochian, Biserica,

223 – 226.

112Bochian, Biserica,

282 – 284.

“3Bochian, Biserica,

283.

“4Bochian, Biserica,

372 (Hebrews 12: 14.

i ‘5Alecsie

Vamvu, (1913 – )

has been a Pentecostal

pastor

in Roumania since 1939 and

played

a major role in the

reorganization

of the church in 1945. Since then he has served as Vice-President

(1951 – 1956)

and as General

Secretary

of the Roumanian Pentecostal Church in addition to his

responsibilities

as pastor in Bucharest.

‘ ‘6Alecsie Vamvu, Actele de cult in Biserica lui Dumnezeu with a “Prefata”

by Trandafir Sandru

365 put Hereafter, Vamvu, Actele de Cult. It is a sequel

(Bucure?sti:

Cultul

Penticostal, 1981)

to Bochian’s Biserica lui Dumnezeu discussed above.

Bibliography pp.

358.

Many photographs.

117Vamvu, Actele

de Cult, 346 – 357.

118Vamvu, Actele

de Cult, 13 – 86.

“9Vamvu,

Actele de Cult, 87 – 315.

120Vamvu,

Actele de Cult, 87 – 138..

121 Vamvu,

Actele de Cult, 142 – 3l 1.

1?2Vamvu,

Actele de Cult, 219 – 233.

123Sandru, BLD, 9 – 15; PAC, 9 – 15.

This is provided as a supplement to the Pentecostal Creeds

provided by W.J. Hollenweger,

The Pentec- ostals

(Minneapolis: Augsburg, 1972), 513 – 522.

22

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