Why A Catholic Is Interested

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Pneuma 31 (2009) 35-46

Whither Pentecostal T eology? Why a Catholic is Interested

Ralph Del Colle

T eology Department, Marquette University, PO Box 1881,

Milwaukee, WI 53201-1881, USA



The essay explores the future direction of Pentecostal theology by posing a dialogue question that emerges in the conversation between Catholics and Pentecostals. This concerns the “supernatu- ral” character of grace as understood and experienced in both traditions. How is this character preserved as it engages all dimensions of our humanity? Two aspects of this afirmation are explored. First, grace perfects all aspects of human nature including human agency, thus our common emphasis on transformation and Christian perfection. Second, the Church’s mission ad extra embraces its witness in the secular realm in the arenas of culture, justice, peace, and the integrity of creation. The challenge to both traditions is how to preserve the supernatural gratuity of grace as the church enacts this mission in the transit from church to world.


nature, grace, supernatural, transformation, mission, Catholic-Pentecostal dialogue, social gospel

Let me clarify the title and intent of this essay. Whither Pentecostal theology is a query taken up by many a Pentecostal theologian — Frank Macchia, Amos Yong, Veli-Matti Kärkkäinen and others — and one does not necessarily need the input of non-Pentecostals to engage in this project. Of course, the ones I’ve mentioned are superb theologians well aware of theology in the church catholic as well as the faith of their own traditions. In fact, I would suggest that the relative youth of the Pentecostal movement, a mere century after the cen- tennial celebrations of the Azuza Street Revival this past April, and the even more recent emergence of Pentecostal theology as represented, for example, by the journals Pneuma and the Journal of Pentecostal T eology , bespeaks an inter- esting moment in the history of theology. Tese emergent Pentecostal theolo- gies are self-consciously attempting to articulate, to think the faith, in fi delity

© Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2009 DOI: 10.1163/157007409X418130



R. Del Colle / Pneuma 31 (2009) 35-46

to what God is doing in their own movement and in conversation with the wider Christian theological world, all with an ecumenical rather than sectarian intentionality. I do think this is rather unique. Although it is not the first time that theology has been done in conversation with other Christian confessional traditions this has usually been polemical, fruitful but polemical. This is not the case with the theologians I have mentioned. T ey combine their nascent construction of Pentecostal theology with ecumenical overtures. And it makes for interesting theologies.

So, whither Pentecostal theology is not intended as some sort of external tribunal directing where it ought to go. My interest, that is, my Catholic inter- est, is an attempt to think with Pentecostal theologians about the signifi cance of Pentecostalism for the church catholic as well as the Catholic Church. You might say that because I consider the Pentecostal movement to be a move of God, it is important that its theological articulation be heard by fellow Chris- tians as we attempt to faithful to the Lord and his mission, even as we seek the unity of the church in response to his high priestly prayer that we all may be one (Jn 17: 21).

Additionally, and not insignifi cantly — and I trust that Pentecostals above all will understand this — I come to this conversation with a burden, a burden for the church and its mission. I speak as a committed Catholic, so much of that burden concerns my own church, but also as one who has been engaged in ecumenism for the last decade. As we walk the path toward Christian unity, maybe even ecclesial unity, we need ask what type of unity we are seeking. T is, in fact, was the recent subject of a text that emerged from the Ninth Assembly of the World Council of Churches in Porto Alegre, Brazil this past February. Entitled “Text on ecclesiology: Called to be the One Church,” its subtitle expresses its hope: “An invitation to the churches to renew their com- mitment to the search for unity and to deepen their dialogue.” I was not pres- ent at the assembly but having been a delegate for the Catholic Church to the Eighth Assembly of the WCC in Harare, Zimbabwe in 1998, I have a strong sense of the various tendencies within the ecumenical movement. Eff orts to include Pentecostals into the ecumenical movement increased since Harare with the formation of the WCC’s Joint Consultative Group with Pentecostals and we are all well aware of the pioneering ecumenical work of Mel Robeck. Although this paper is not about ecumenism I did want to advert to the recent WCC Assembly because of this document and the theme of the Assembly. The latter — “God, in your grace transform the world” — speaks to my Catholic interest in Pentecostal theology. Let me explain.


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Christian life and mission as well as church unity is dependent upon God’s grace and gift. The prayer of the Assembly is therefore an appropriate one. Both Catholics and Pentecostals are well aware of this epicletic posture that informs and shapes so much of our ecclesial life. Odd, isn’t it, that a sacramen- tal tradition and a charismatic one both value the prayer that invokes the com- ing of the Holy Spirit. It is my contention that one cannot understand either Catholics or Pentecostals without appreciating how signifi cant the notion and reality of transformative grace is operative in their understanding and praxis. This is not to suggest that the Spirit is unimportant for the magisterial Refor- mation traditions as well as for Evangelicals; no strangers either one for the invocation of the Spirit with the Word to engender Christian and ecclesial life. However, it is the emphasis on grace and transformation in the Assembly’s prayer theme that I want to initially focus on, and then the world. Much water has passed under the bridge, so to speak, in the elaboration of a Catholic theology of grace with considerable attention to issues of nature and grace, the classic Catholic paradigm for understanding this doctrine. Going back to T omas Aquinas’s famous axiom that “grace does not destroy nature but perfects it” Catholics have invested a great deal in the notion that the human being in all ones’ faculties is healed of the wounds of sin and elevated to participate in the Trinitarian life of God. Grace does not bypass one’s faculties of reason and will but sanctifi es and deifi es them such that one truly may exist in the supernatural order of the economy of salvation. Two aspects of the Catholic doctrine of grace require emphasis. First, the gratuity of grace should never be undermined. God does not owe grace to human beings but bestows it freely and abundantly. Second, grace is supernatural, an important term in Catholic scholastic theology. The supernatural exceeds the capacity of nature, not contradicting it — that would be the non-natural (Scheeben 1954: 25) — but elevating, perfecting and transforming it to union with God, something unattainable by nature in itself. The supernatural embraces all manner of graces and gifts bestowed by the risen and glorifi ed Christ in the power of the Holy Spirit from the new life conferred through the washing of regeneration in baptism to the various assisting graces, gifts and charismata that endow Christian life. Needless to say for Catholics this includes sanctifying or habitual grace, a ongoing supernatural disposition or “super- natural state of being which is infused by God, and which permanently inheres in the soul” (Ott 1958: 255) and the grace of the sacraments. In other words, to appreciate the full scope of the Catholic doctrine of grace one must account for both the ongoing and the transitional, grace that habitually transforms and



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that which is momentarily off ered. Both constitute that supernatural organ- ism that is the Church and Christian life.

I have briefl y reviewed the Catholic doctrine of grace in order to set up the conversation with Pentecostal theological interests. No doubt Pentecostal understandings of grace hold a strong afinity for the supernatural even while caution would be exercised in regard to ongoing confi gurations of grace espe- cially toward those that are sacramentally construed. But my point is not a strict comparison and adjudication of our respective theologies of grace. Rather I want to pose a status quaestionis with respect to our two traditions in light of the WCC Assembly theme, “God in your grace transform the world.” How does one preserve the gratuity and supernatural dimension of grace when the scope of God’s gracious and salvifi c self-communication is the entire cre- ation? This is a question that attends the consummation of God’s grace in eschatological fulfi llment, indeed a new heavens and new earth in which God’s righteousness dwells (2 Peter 3: 13). But more specifi cally it concerns the action of grace between the times, between Pentecost and Parousia, wherein ecclesial life and mission is enacted. It raises the issue of how grace is operative when the object of salvation is not just the believer and the church but the world — “God, in your grace transform the world” — meaning in its typical theological explications how grace is present in the secular, the promotion of justice, peace, and the integrity of creation (to borrow again from the WCC), the transformation of culture, and in dialogue with world religions. All of the preceding presupposes the universality of grace and the broader scope of sote- riological intentionality and it proceeds not just from Christ’s presence in the church but from the kingdom that embraces the entire cosmos.

The language of grace is also the language of pneumatology. How is the Spirit working in the church and in the world? T ere is no doubt that the Pentecostal focus on pneumatology has broached these broader issues beyond simply specifying the nature of Spirit baptism and spiritual gifts. The recent books by Amos Yong and Frank Macchia make explicit the universality of intention in the subtitles of each of their books, respectively The Spirit Poured Out on all Flesh: Pentecostalism and the Possibility of Global T eology and Bap- tized in the Spirit: A Global Pentecostal T eology . Although Catholic engage- ment with these issues has been longer, as has that of the member churches of the WCC, it is to the Pentecostal contribution to the conversation that I express my interest in the query, Whither Pentecostal T eology?

Let me proceed by further attention to grace, some queries about transfor- mation, and then conclude by relating these to the world, the object of the prayer, “God, in your grace transform the world.”


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In understanding the grace of God it is worth considering the correlate to grace that helps illuminate what we mean by grace as in the Catholic axiom that grace perfects nature. In the Catholic view we must understand nature in order to speak about grace and vice-versa. Since nature is the object of perfec- tion it is important to have a thorough account of nature so that nothing is lost to the healing and elevation that grace eff ects. If, for example, we postu- lated a rather desiccated view of nature, lacking in depth and possibility, this would likewise diminish the transformative actualities of grace. If the intellect was incapable of knowing truth, how could we then postulate that the end of grace is the beatifi c vision, knowing God face to face? The same follows with the faculty of volition. If the will is incapable of love, how could grace call us to a love with one’s whole heart, mind, soul, and strength? This is not to deny my point about the gratuity and supernatural nature of grace. Freely given by God — it is all gift! — grace restores and renews to such an extent that crea- tures now as new creation are able to mount up in ways that exceed not just the old creation aff ected by the Fall but even the original creation in all its primordial and preternatural glory. However, it is to say that the less noble the creature, so too the lesser in stature is the creature redeemed.

So, whither Pentecostal theology? As is well known the major contrast at the time of the Reformation is not between nature and grace but between sin and grace. Hence, even under the grace of redemption Luther is still constrained by simul iustus et peccator when it comes to holiness and Christian perfection. In my query to Pentecostals — as in all the remaining queries the concern is to accentuate what is distinctive to Pentecostal theology, a project of the books I mentioned as well as of many other works by Pentecostal theologians — my question is what is the correlate to grace? Could it be creation and new cre- ation? Or, does one hold to the Reformation paradigm? The answer to this question also fi gures in relation to theological anthropology and the character- ization of the supernatural in grace. T ere are tendencies, if I read Macchia correctly, to not limit the understanding of the spiritual gifts to the miracu- lous. How do the operations of grace, of the Spirit take up and elevate our human faculties? When the anointing is present and the Spirit breathes on us to what extent is the human person engaged in the exercise of these gifts? Are all dimensions of our creatureliness taken up by the Spirit or just some? Cath- olicity and fullness — as in “full gospel” — are at stake in the answers given.

Another way of parsing this inquiry about the theology of grace between Catholics and Pentecostals is to evaluate the Catholic emphasis on infusion



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with the Pentecostal one on outpouring. Accounts of the inner workings of grace abound in Catholic spiritual and mystical literature. It is there that one begins to understand the many distinctions that Catholics have traditionally made in regard to the types of grace, e.g. between habitual grace and actual grace. Among Pentecostals there is certainly a diversity of gifts, anointings, and works of the Spirit. Does, however, the Catholic focus on interiority and the Pentecostal one on manifestation, sign, and evidence mark a signifi cant diff erence between the two traditions? For the moment, they serve as guides to answer the crucial questions that will be addressed later. In both cases, how- ever, they signify that it is the Sprit’s work in the believer that is crucial for the authenticity of Christian life and ecclesial life.

Authentic Christian life is recognized in the sanctity of the People of God. The call to holiness and in God’s grace the real possibility of sanctifi cation is common to both our traditions. The transformation eff ected by the Holy Spirit is witnessed to in the obedience of faith of those who pursue that “holi- ness without which no one will see the Lord” (Heb 12:14). Christian perfec- tion as the fullness of divine love has informed the telos of Christian life in the great tradition of the church, east and west, and has been assumed by the youngest of Christian movements, namely Pentecostals. Although played out in the doctrinal disputes at the emergence of the Pentecostal movement between Wesleyans and non-Wesleyans this should not be interpreted as an attenuation of the biblical injunction to “be holy for I am holy” (Lev. 11:44- 45, 1 Pet. 1:16). Disputes over the ordo salutis and the doctrine of subsequence in regard to Spirit baptism may even be understood as a “Pentecostal asceti- cism” equipping the believer for a life of discipleship in which purity and power ought not be separated as both Simon Chan (Chan 2000: 85096) and Frank Macchia (Macchia 2006: 257-282) have argued.

Whither Pentecostal theology relative to the theology of grace? The three issues I have raised must be taken within the horizon of the church catholic. One needs be cautious about the reduction of grace to some sort of religious naturalism. Pentecostalism does not seem to be in danger of this. The super- natural character of grace is widely and deeply afirmed by virtue of the out- pouring of the Holy Spirit as this leads to new life in Christ and the power of the Holy Spirit for sanctifi cation and witness. Indeed this requires a strong theological anthropology in which the full scope of human nature is touched, transformed, and energized by divine grace in the power of the Holy Spirit. A deep interiority of life will not be some quietist restraint on those numerous anointings that the Lord pours upon us but rather it provides a contemplative


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depth to Christian life such that one is alert to neither grieving nor quenching the Spirit (1 T ess. 5: 19, Eph 4: 30).

One hopes in light of this that the gift of the Holy Spirit in Spirit baptism, the signature I think of the Pentecostal movement, will prove even more accept- able in the church catholic. Its association with Christian conversion/initiation must be considered afresh by Pentecostal theologians as, in fact, many are doing. This avoids on the one hand, any notion of Spirit baptism as a super addditum, as simply adding a blessing to the Christian life that is already com- plete in Christ at conversion. Rather, its association with conversion — dis- tinct from regeneration — emphasizes the full heritage of the divine gift given in Christ in which the soteriological and missional ought not to be separated as Frank Macchia’s eloquent defi nition of Spirit baptism makes clear.

Baptism in the Spirit implies a baptism into Christ and into God, a participation in the divine life by which we place on God our death, sin, suff ering, and isolation in order to partake of his life everlasting, righteousness, healing, and fellowship (Macchia 2006: 46).


“God, in your grace, transform the world.” Is this prayer similar to what Paul means when he exhorts the Romans to be transformed by the renewal of their minds (Rom. 12: 2)? Or, by beholding the risen Lord to be changed into like- ness from one degree of glory to another as from the Lord who is the Spirit (2 Cor. 3: 18)? Certainly God promises to transform the creation in a new heavens and a new earth (Rev. 21). But this is an eschatological transformation reaching to resurrection of the dead, and for which the church prays: “Amen. Come Lord Jesus!” (Rev. 22: 20). But the question is before us. What do we mean by transformation, even transformation of the world?

I concluded the previous section on grace by quoting Frank Macchia on Spirit baptism. Let me quote him again on the same subject.

Spirit baptism is well suited as a point of integration between sanctifi cation and escha- tology, since it is a metaphor that implies a participation in the life-transforming pres- ence of God (Macchia 2006: 42).

Spirit baptism is for Macchia an eschatological reality that inaugurates the kingdom (Macchia 2006: 106) and therefore constitutes the church and the



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new life of believers but is clearly greater than both. I agree with this and fi nd his insights helpful for it prevents a narrow ecclesiocentrism or the pietistic restriction of the Spirit’s work to the inner life of believers. But it also raises a question for me that is relevant to the subject of transformation and poses my own query, whither Pentecostal theology?

Specifi cally, what is the nature of transformation as it applies to the believer, the church and the world? Macchia’s account of Spirit baptism directs us to its transformative powers since he embraces holiness as being within the ambit of this eschatological reality operative in the present. Empowerment for witness and mission cannot be separated from the grace of holiness. Purity and power, as we have seen, must be taken together. In this respect I think we can say that we know what transformation is in the life of the believer. One is freed from the power of sin and conformed to the image of Christ. We can identify the actual transformation that the Spirit eff ects through the interior work that Catholics identify as sanctifying grace. To keep in this Catholic register the evidence of transformation is seen in the theological and moral virtues — faith, hope and love for the former and prudence, justice, fortitude and tem- perance for the latter. The fruits of the Spirit, the beatitudes, the gifts of the Holy Spirit (the sevenfold wisdom, understanding, knowledge, counsel, piety, fortitude and the fear of the Lord), the charismata as well as the spiritual and corporal works of mercy, have all been the measure of growth in the spiritual life and in the way of holiness. Pentecostals likewise know how to identify the evidence of a holy life.

But how does one identify the transformative eff ects of the Spirit’s work in the world, that is in culture and society, which all will admit must bear some resemblance to the kingdom consummated and is in a real sense present in the life of the church. In my own tradition Catholic teaching is clear that there is a nuanced relationship between the kingdom’s presence in the Church and in society. Lumen Gentium, Vatican II’s Dogmatic Constitution on the Church, identifi es the church as the “kingdom of Christ now present in mystery” and which “grows visibly through the power of God in the world” (LG 3). As far as the Christian and ecclesial responsibility vis-à-vis the world is concerned there has developed a considerable body of teaching on social matters now collected in the Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church published by the Pontifi cal Council for Justice and Peace. It covers such topics as human rights, the family, human work, economic life, political community, the inter- national community, the enviroment, and peace. The goal is a civilization of love built upon an “integral and solidary humanism” based upon such principles as the common good, the universal destination of goods, subsidiar-


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ity, participation, and solidarity, all bound together in truth, freedom, and jus- tice. It is an impressive tradition, developed explicitly over more than a century. It should form the conscience of every Catholic and guide the pronounce- ments of Episcopal conferences, local bishops and dioceses, and certainly the prudential action of lay Catholics in their social and political activity. How- ever, my point is not to elucidate further on these matters but to examine the transformative dimensions of such praxis as it relates to the kingdom and the church.

In its explication of the petition of the Lord’s Prayer, “T y kingdom come,” the Catechism of the Catholic Church states the following.

By a discernment according to the Spirit, Christians have to distinguish between the growth of the Reign of God and the progress of the culture and society in which they are involved. The distinction is not a separation. Man’s vocation to eternal life does not suppress, but actually reinforces, his duty to put into action in this world the energies and means received from the Creator to serve justice and peace (Catechism of the Catholic Church 2820).

I fi nd this teaching to be very instructive. Frankly, this is the burden with which I come to this paper. I wrestle over the relationship between Christian life, evangelization, and the social gospel. I am convinced that the church must witness to justice, peace, and the integrity of creation while simultaneously not reducing faith to politics. The catechism prefers a distinction without separation and situates the specifi cs of the matter to discernment. In his inaugural encycli- cal Deus Caritas Est Pope Benedict XVI argues for the indirect role of the church vis-à-vis politics and the promotion of justice. He is worth quoting.

The Church cannot and must not take upon herself the political battle to bring about the most just society possible. She cannot and must not replace the State. Yet at the same time she cannot and must not remain on the sidelines in the fi ght for justice. She has to play her part through rational argument and she has to reawaken the spiritual energy without which justice, which always demands sacrifi ce, cannot prevail and prosper. A just society must be the achievement of politics, not of the Church. Yet the promotion of justice through the eff orts to bring about openness of mind and will to the demands of the common good is something which concerns the Church deeply (Deus Caritas Est 28).

So whither Pentecostal theology on this issue? As Pentecostals move into the realm of social justice and emancipatory praxis they face a similar need to both discern and think through the relationship of Christian witness to politics and culture. What type of transformation is expected in society compared to that



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in the church? Pentecostals have often been accused of being apolitical. But that is now no longer the case with Pentecostals nationally and internationally appearing on both sides of the political spectrum.

If I sound cautious, it is because I am. I would argue on the suggestion of the current pope that the passage into politics is a mediated venture, impor- tant but indirect. Without grounding in the supernatural life of the church political witness looses kingdom perspective. The direct proclamation and teaching of the church is the paschal mystery of Christ’s saving death and resurrection which indirectly and mediately informs the “fi ght for justice” based as it is upon reason and the pursuit of the common good. Its relation- ship to the more explicit life of the gospel in the church is analogous and not one of identity.

T ere is another dimension of transformation that also should be consid- ered. To what extent is human agency a constitutive dimension of transforma- tion or sanctifi cation. Obviously God’s utilizes human agents and agency and Pentecostals are no strangers to the fact that spiritual gifts while super- natural in origin proceed from their human actors, earthen vessels that they are (2 Cor. 4: 7). But as I posed earlier to what extent does divine agency embrace all dimensions of the human person? Here I explore the matter in relation to human cooperation and the increase of grace.

As sympathetic as some Pentecostals are to the transformative nature of justifi cation — again my interlocutor is Frank Macchia, but one could also mention Veli-Matti Kärkkäinen — the line is usually drawn at the Catholic notion of merit. My purpose here in querying Pentecostal theology is not necessarily to persuade Pentecostal theologians on the matter. Rather it is to focus attention on how the Spirit ministers through the ecclesial body without compromising the Spirit’s freedom to blow where he wills (Jn 3: 8). But first a word about the nature of the church.

The confession of the holiness of the church in the creed is usually not a point of absolute agreement between Catholics and Protestants. The Protes- tant objection is that in their judgment Catholics do not say that the church can be sinful, preferring to leave sinfulness to the members of the church while still professing the holiness of the church in its hierarchical and sacramental structures. While postponing that discussion and the classic disagreement that attends it, I do want to suggest that a Pentecostal contribution can enlighten our appreciation of how the Spirit’s work in the church, universally and locally, bears fruit in the maturation of the ecclesial body. It was Paul who described the church existing in a position to “attain to the unity of the faith and of the knowledge of the Son of God, to mature manhood, to the measure of the


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stature of the fullness of Christ” (Eph 4: 13). Between the times the church is called not only to grow in numbers but also to mature in holiness. Awareness of the Spirit’s action in our midst alerts Pentecostal congrega- tions to the giftedness of its members, some who continue to manifest par- ticular spiritual gifts as a part of their ministry. If this is true in regard to spiritual gifts that are freely given and therefore freely ministered for the edifi – cation of others and of the church as a whole, might it also be true in the realm of holiness as well. Here the spiritual maturity of some contributes to the growth of others. Gifts are operative together with the fruits of the Spirit so that each member being knit together with others builds up the entire body (Eph 4: 15-16). I would like to say this is what Catholics mean by merit but I shall leave it at that. Nevertheless, could we even go so far as to say that mem- bers of the Body of Christ share in the spiration of the Spirit from their union with the glorifi ed head of the church? The Pentecostal contribution might be to educate the church catholic on how to discern the church as a school of the Spirit, one that is called to a continually greater maturity in the Lord.

The World

“God, in your grace, transform the world.” So is the world the object of God’s transformative presence? Yes, of course. Most explicitly in the life of the church where witness to Christ and conformation to his image is realized in word, sacrament, and the life of discipleship. This is a communion actualized in both edifi cation of the body and mission to the world. Again, the transformation of the world will be consummated at the parousia when the eschatological prom- ise is fulfi lled. Indirectly and mediately the world is transformed between the times in society, culture and politics by the promotion of truth, goodness and beauty in justice, solidarity and a common life. Even these are of vital concern to the kingdom of God where they will be brought to full fl ower “freed of stain, burnished and transfi gured” when Christ hands over the kingdom to the Father (Gaudium et Spes 39). In the meantime the church seeks to be faithful to the gospel through a deeper union with the Lord Jesus and of its members with one another.

In conclusion, perhaps the greatest challenge to Christians in our society is secularity and religious pluralism. I will not discuss the latter except to say that evangelization and dialogue are in my mind both possible. Such a conversa- tion would also have to take into account the extensive work of Amos Yong on this matter. In regard to the former the issue is more pervasive and presents a



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challenge to Christian spirituality. In Catholic life this has led to developments in the theology of grace that insist on the universality of the bestowal of grace beginning with creation and present in the public square and everyday life. I am not so sure about such developments.

Indeed, we are called to fi nd God in all things as my own Ignatian spiritual- ity (the Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius Loyola) insists. To contemplate God’s love present in creation, redemption, and in history is the heart of this spiritu- ality. My only concern, and this is where I welcome the counsel of Pentecostals is that we do not loose our sense of the supernatural that comes to us from the Spirit of Christ. Communion with the Father and the Son in the bond of their Holy Spirit is the basis of the Christian life. This need not be lost as we go out to the highways and byways. It will simply ensure that the salt does not loose it savor and that the church truly is the light of the world (Matt 5:13-16). Whither Pentecostal theology? It is my hope that this conversation will con- tinue and bear fruit abundantly.

Works Cited

Chan, Simon. Pentecostal T eology and the Christian Spiritual Tradition (Shefield: Shefield

Academic Press, 2000).

Macchia, Frank D. Baptized in the Spirit: A Global Pentecostal T eology (Grand Rapids: Zondervan,


Ott, Ludwig. Fundamentals of Catholic Dogma (St. Louis: B. Herder, 1958).

Scheeben, Matthias Joseph. Nature and Grace (St. Louis: B. Herder, 1954).

Yong, Amos. The Spirit Poured Out on All Flesh (Grand Rapids: Baker, 2005).


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