What did "Kingdom of Greece" refer to in Daniel 8:21?

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I was reading Daniel 8:15-27, where it says:

…. the ram you saw that had two horns represents the kingdoms of Media and Persia. The goat represents the kingdom of Greece, and the prominent horn between his eyes is the first king….
—Daniel 8:20-21 (GNT)

Can anybody explain what is meant by “kingdom of Greece”? Which countries/region/area does it point to now or back in the day?


  • Reply December 10, 2016

    Dan Irving

    I have always taken this kingdom as a metaphor for the modern spirit of humanistic and democratic thought that has taken ascendancy in the world and which constitutes resistance and a rival to the kingdom of God. Greece’ founder was Alexander the Great, whose name means “defender of man.” The political philosophies of Greece seem to have borne upon the world beginning in the era of the Enlightenment until now.

  • Dan Irving
    Reply December 10, 2016

    Dan Irving

    It is a spirit of this world, overcomable through faith in Jesus Christ.

  • Lennie Marx
    Reply December 10, 2016

    Lennie Marx

    The book of Daniel deals with four Kingdoms Greece is the third!

  • Varnel Watson
    Reply December 10, 2016

    Varnel Watson

    5 maybe? Stone?

  • Philip Williams
    Reply April 2, 2019

    Philip Williams

    The Greeks wanted to impose their culture on the nations they conquered including Judea. They began the world’s first cultural war — against the Jews. They were highly competitive, homosexual, and suppressed women. The Islamic veiled face and treatment of women was inherited from the Greek-Speaking Eastern Roman Empire which they conquered.

    Who are they today? The King of the North and King of the South. Those are the two sides of today’s culture wars between progressives and conservatives.

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