The Function Of Models In The Interpretation Of Pentecostal Thought

The Function Of  Models  In The Interpretation Of Pentecostal Thought

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THE FUNCTION OF “MODELS” IN THE INTERPRETATION OF PENTECOSTAL THOUGHT

By

D. William

Faupel

Introduction

When a student of medicine seeks to learn about the human anatomy,

he studies not

only

the individual

organs

of the

body,

but also the

way

those

organs

are fit

together

to function as an

organic

whole. When the

linguist begins

to

learn

a new

language,

she studies the individual

components

such as phonemes, morphemes,

etc.,

but she also seeks to discover the

overarching

structure into which these

components are built. So too, I believe, that the

budding

historian in

seeking

to understand and

interpret

a movement, should

try

not

only

to discover the structural units of the movement but should also

attempt

to grasp the framework into which those units are built.

One

way

to discover such structure is

by analogy through

model construction. For

example,

in the field of physics, the model of an atom was constructed from an

analogy

to the solar

system.

From this

analogy certain theories about the nature of the universe could be devised and tested.

D. William Faupel is a doctoral candidate at the University of

He serves as librarian at

Birmingham, England.

Asbury.Theological Seminary, Wilmore, Kentucky. Mr. Faupel is an ordained

Episcopalian minister.

– 51-

1

discipline

for that matter, contradictory.

The

development though helpful,

is

usually partial. pretation

is often

gross

reductionism.

The

problem

in

seeking

to

identify

structures in

history,

or in any

is that the data are

complex

data. “Particle” interpret

“complementary

areas of Pentecostal

thought

and often of a model to account for the

data,

The result of

subsequent

inter-

models”

has

even

though

certain

aspects

of of

argues

that the

theory

of

studies,

I have identified five

can be

theology.

In the

physical

sciences a

theory of “complementary

emerged.

This

theory suggests

that no one model can account for all the

and “wave” models, for

example,

are laid side

by

side to

the behavior of electrons,

photons

and the other inhabitants the atomic world.1 Both are

accepted

these models are at variance with each other.

Ian

Barbour,

a phyicist turned

theologian,

models” can be

applied

with

profit

to the field of theological inquiry through

the

analysis

of religious

language.`’

In seeking to test this thesis in the field of Pentecostal

from

which,

I

believe, models constructed that will reveal the structure of early Pentecostal

In this

paper

I shall first

identify

the five motifs from which the models are drawn, and then

proceed

to sketch them

briefly. Secondly

I shall endeavor to demonstrate that these models can be useful tools to: a. discover the focus of the

early message,

in the movement and c.

provide

the basis for the

reflection.

quent developments

on-going process

of

theological

I.

Complementary

The

early

Pentecostals identify

their movement.

b. understand the subse-

Model

Construction

to use four titles to

Movement

found it

necessary

In addition

they

used two names

interchang- ably by which they

labeled their

message.

The titles

they assigned

to the

were: 1. The Full

Gospel;

2. The Latter

Apostolic Faith;

and 4. Pentecostal. The two names that

they assigned

Rain;

3. The

1 Ian G. Barbour, Myths, Models, and Paradigms: The Nature

of Scientific and Religious Language. (London: SCM Press, 1974), pp. 6, 7.

2lbid. p. 8.

52

2

.

»

to their

message

were: 1. This

Gospel

of the

Kingdom

and 2. The Everlasting Gospel.

I suggest that an

analysis

of logic inherent in these names

provides

the basis for

constructing

the

five “complementary models.” .

A. The Full

Gospel

Movement: The Doctrinal Model

The doctrinal content of the Pentecostal

Message

was called the Full-GospeL

Donald

Dayton

has

correctly

identified five cardinal themes which repeatedly

recur in the

early

Pentecostal

message.

These themes are: Justification

by

faith in Christ, 2. Sanctification as a second definite work of grace, 3. Healing of the body through the atoning work of Christ, 4. The

pre-millennial

return of Christ, and 5. The

baptism

in the

Holy Spirit

evidenced

by speaking

in unknown

tongues.2

Later,

when William H. Durham’s

message concerning

the “Finish- ed work of Christ ”

split

the movement, his followers

adopted

a four-fold pattern

which is expressed in the chorus: “Jesus The Only Saviour, The Great

Baptizer,

The

Mighty Healer,

and The Soon

Coming King.”

lDonald W. Dayton, The Roots of Pentecostalism, Chapter 1. “Toward a Theological Analysis

of Pentecostalism” (First draft of an unpublished dissertation University of Chicago, 1978), pp.

1-5.

2 Documentation for the recurrence of this five-fold pattern could be endless. The two examples

cited below are illustrations: Sarah E. Parham referring to the instruction given at the Bethel Healing Home in 1898 stated “We taught Salvation, Healing, Sanctification, the Second Coming of Christ and the Baptism of the Holy Spirit, although we had not received the evidence of speaking in tongues.” Sarah E. Parham. The Life of Charles F. Parham, Founder of the Apostolic Faith Movement, (Joplin, MO: Press of Hunter Printing Company, 1930), p.

39. The Apostolic Faith Mission, founded by Florence L. Crawford, an early

leader at Azusa Street, also holds this pattern. “This church… places special emphasis

on the need of having three definite, separate, spiritual experiences wrought out in the heart and life: Justification, Sanctification, The Baptism of the Holy Ghost… These doctrines concerning spiritual experience, together with the teachings on Divine Healing, and the Imminent Second Coming of Jesus-pre-millenial … provide the solid, scriptural foundation on which the church stands.” A Historical Account of the Apostlic Faith, A Trinitarian-Fundamental

Evangelistic Organization (Portland,

OR: Apostolic Faith Mission Headquarters, 1965), pp. 20-21.

.

– 53-

3

Santification cardinal doctrines

as a second definite work of grace

dropped

from the list of

of this Keswick

wing

of the movement.

B. The Latter Rain Movement:

The World-view Model

Early

Pentecostal doctrine thinking.

Rather

they interpreted their

understanding

did not stand alone in the adherents’

these cardinal doctrines in

light

of

upon

which the whole of

history movement’s

undergirding

foundation.

of history. Their world-view was constructed the “Latter Rain Covenant.” Since this motif

provided

the framework in

could be

understood,

land of Palestine

it served

as the

which occurs in the

11:10-15,

God covenanted

The covenant is based on a natural

phenomenon

each

year.

the

coming

of the

early

and the latter rain. The former rain enabled the

crops

to take root each

spring. Following

a long

hot summer, the latter rains would fall,

giving

a final

quick growth

to ripen

the

grain

for harvest. In

Deuteromony

with His

people

Israel that if they were obedient to His commands He would

“give

the rain to

your land,

the

early

and latter rain.”

Within this framework the whole of history, both human and

divine, was understood. The

understanding begins

with traditional

Christian doctrine of the creation consequent

of a

perfect

Judeo- world,

the fall and

enslavement of man. Then,

through

a series of

dispensa- tions, God acted

to

bring

about man’s reconciliation with

Himself, by setting

aside a

people,

both to reveal His intention to mankind and

through

whom He would

accomplish

a

given

adherent

His

purpose.

of the Stone

The Latter Rain covenant

concept

was

applied

to each

dispensation

saw in

history.

William

Piper, pastor

Church in

Chicago,

for

example

stated:

God’s …

sovereignty operates

at

special

times and in

special

cases,

but

always

in the

closing

and

opening

of

dispensations.

… After the new

dispensation

part

God

operates along

well-established

God’s

grace.1

is ushered in, then for the most

principles-this

is

1 William H.

Piper,

“The Lord

Reigneth!

He is Clothed with

Majesty: God’s Sovereignty Displayed in the Latter Rain,” The Latter Rain Evange4 (December, 1909, p.

– 54-

4

to the

con-

pattern

is transformed

The classic Pentecostal

exposition motif is a series of lectures

presented convention

Myland’s

hermeneutical

principle Testament

Scriptures

for this Covenant

Piper

did not

deny

that God works

sovereignly during

other times in history

but rather states that transitions from one

dispensation next were the

primary

times His

supernatural power

was

displayed.

He cited the time of Noah, Moses, and John the

Baptist

as

examples.

The second

point Piper made,

and to which most adherents curred,

was that God’s

sovereign

acts at the close of an

age duplicated the

pattern

demonstrated at the

opening

of that

age.

In the

process

the

opening

the

way

for the

age

that followed.

1

of this Latter Rain Covenant by

D.

Wesley Myland during

a

1909.2

of the Old

and the

held in the Stone Church in

Chicago

in May-June,

for the

interpretation

enabled him to set forth three levels of fulfillment

of Promise: the

literal,

the

typological,

prophetic.3

The “literal”

applied

to the nation of Israel.

Myland suggests that as

long

as the nation was faithful to the conditions of the covenant, God

promised

sufficient rainfall for the

planting

and the

ripening

of the grain

for harvest. He

applied

the

“typological”

to God’s New Covenant Myland

follows the lead of his

and the

it was the

“prophetic”

.

equating

the

early

rain to

justification

life.4 However,

which revealed “God’s

plan

in the

ages,

and

bringing

in the eternal

kingdom

of our Lord Jesus Christ” that fascinated

Myland

most.

People,

the Church. In this

interpretation, Perfectionist forbears,

latter rain to the

Spirit-filled interpretation

He was convinced that the

dispensational

1 Ibid., pp. 7-9.

fulfillment would occur when

2 These lectures were printed in The Latter Rain Evangel (Chicago) I. (June-October, 1909), and later published in a book form under the title The Latter Rain Covenant and Pentecostal Power

in 1973 and is available from (Chicago: Evangel Publishing

House, 1910). The book was privately reprinted

A. N. Trotter, P. 0. Drawer S, MO 65738.

Republic,

3Myland, The Latter Rain Covenant, pp. 6, 23, 32.

4G. F. Taylor, The Spirit and the Bride: A Scriptural Presentation of the Operations, Manifestations, Gifts and Fruits of the Holy Spirit in Relation to the Bride with Special Reference to the “Latter Rain” ReuivaL (Dunn, NC: n.p., 1907), p. 91.

– 55-

5

He saw

the literal and

typological

fulfillments

happened this

taking place

in Zionism and in the Pentecostal

In addition to the

Deuteronomy

most

significant twentieth

simultaneously. I

revival.’

passage,

the Latter Rain

concept

appears

in seven other

passages

of Scripture.2 Of these Joel 2:23 was the

for the

early

adherents to tie this covenant to the

century.

This

passage

is part of the content of Peter’s text on the

day

of Pentecost as recorded in Acts 2:16-21: This is what was

spoken by

the

prophet

Joel:

.

will

prophecy

And in the last

days

it shall

be,

God

declares,

that I will

pour

out

my Spirit upon

all flesh

and

your

sons and

your daughters

and

your young

men shall see visions

and

your

old men shall dream dreams.

Yea,

on

my

menservants and

my

maidservants in those

days I will

pour

out

my Spirit;

and

they

shall

prophesy.

and I will show wonders in the heaven above

and

signs

on the earth

beneath,

blood and

fire,

and

vapor

of

smoke; the sun shall be turned to darkness

and the moon turned to blood

before the

Day

of the Lord

comes,

the

great

and

manifest day.

The

early

adherents “This is That”‘ Pentecost

that in one sense the

readily acknowledged

sermon

suggests

that the Church

age

is the time of the latter

rain,

but

they

also insisted that it equally

applied

within the Church

Age.

The

early rain,

in this

sense,

was the

day

of Pentecost and the events that flowed from that to establish the church. The

latter

rain would fall to ripen the

harvest just example,

G. F.

Taylor

claimed:

… most of Old Testament

before the

day

of

Judgment.

For

prophecy

prophecy quoted by Peter (Joel 2:28-32

1 Confidence (February, 1909), p. 35.

is

two-fold,

re. Joel’s and Acts

2:17-20)

was

2Burton H. Hall, The Promise of the Father, or, This is

Author,

That, (McKinney, TX; The

1927), p. 7

– 56-

6

.

partially

fulfilled on the

day

of

Pentecost,

fulfillment is still future

appears

but that its

greater from Joel 2:30-32.1

A Brother

Kelting

was even more

egplicit.

“The blood and fire did

not come on the first

day

of Pentecost,

periods: Church,

1. The Establishment 3. The Reformation

but … the Lord will come in our

Model

of this

2. The

Apostasy

of the

own time and then

(we)

will see these

signs.2

C. The

Apostolic

Faith Movement: The Restoration

If the Latter Rain Covenant enabled the Pentecostals to construct a world-view

by which they

were able to interpret the whole of history, then “The

Apostolic Faith,”

like a piece of puzzle, fit into its context

bringing into

sharper focus,

one

segment

of that

history.

The

parameters model are confined to the church

age.

This

age

was divided into four

of the

Church,

of the

Church,

and 4. The Restoration of the Church. After a glorious

beginning,

the Church

gradually

fell into a state of apostasy, beginning shortly after the end of the first

century

and culminating by

the time of Constantine.3 For centuries it drifted in

hopelessly corrupt. Beginning

tempts

was made to

bring

reform. Each effort caused

great

conflict but met with the restoration of another cardinal doctrine. These were seen as showers which would

precede

the latter rain

deluge

of God’s

sovereign

darkness,

activity

at the end of the

age.

Litanies

with

Luther,

a series of at-

of the restoration

of the five

cardinal doctrines are universal in the

early

literature. G. F.

Taylor

is.

typical:

llbid, p. 7..

2 We have a literal Israel returning to their land at the same time that the literal latter rain* is coming to its normal fall upon that land. This together with the spiritual rain

God’s

falling upon Spiritual Israel today, betokens in a remarkably way that the are

us. 106. *Not did Zionism interest

closing days of the Dispensation upon Ibid, p. only Myland, the actual rainfall in Palestine did as welL His

study of the rainfall pattern in that land from 1861- 1907 revealed a

significant increase when averaged in ten-year periods. See “Chart.” Ibid, p. 178-179.

3 The other references are: Job 29:23; Proverbs 16:15; Jeremiah 3:3, 5:24; Hosea Joel

6:3,

2:23; Zechariah 10:1; and James 5:7.

– 57-

7

opposed

in

preaching

and how he was truth. How he did stir

.

A few centuries

ago

God raised

up

Martin Luther to lay the foundation of the

gospel

which is justification by faith; and

you remember what a revolution it

produced,

this wonderful

Europe

and shake the world!

Why

so? Because he

brought

new light

on God’s truth, and God’s

Spirit

was behind it.

After this truth was

accepted, to turn on more

light by presenting sanctification

world received another firming

the truth

proclaimed

powers

of darkness. Sanctification,

God raised

up

John

Wesley the

great

doctrine of entire

but the

of Justification,

the evidence of Pentecost. to a head.l I

by

faith. He like

Luther, was opposed,

great shaking,

the

Holy Spirit

con-

in

signs

and wonders.

Then came the truths of Divine

healing

and the

pre- millenial

coming

of the Lord. Each of these were

fought by

the

Now since the truths

Divine

Healing,

and the

pre-millenial coming

of the Lord have been

accepted by many,

God is turning on more light

and the

fight

is now on the

Baptism

of the

Holy Spirit

and

All things are

culminating-coming

as it were” of

The

early

church was seen as a pattern, “a

photograph

the Latter Rain era.2 The Acts of the

Apostles

was the textbook to serve

as a

pattern restoration.

of their

expectation.

and wonders” to authenticate Apostolic authority

Apostolic power

was to be restored

The theme of the model was

as the restored

full-gospel.

by mighty “signs

to a

disbelieving

world. through

the “Ascension Gift

Pastors, and Teachers,

not be a reformation

The five-fold work of Christ as Savior,

Sanctifier, Baptizer, Healer,

and

Coming King

was

proclaimed

These claims to Christ’s work were to be

accompanied

the

message

was to be restored

Ministries” of Apostles, Prophets, Evangelists,

through

the exercise of the nine-fold gifts

of the

spirit

in body ministry. The

consequence

church itself would be restored to her former

glory.

This church would

of the

old,

but rather a

saved, sanctified,

1 G. F. Taylor, op. cit., p. 98.

of this was that the

filled

2Susan A. Duncan, “What is It?” Word and Work (August, 1910), p. 239.

– 58-

8

Judaism. The restored church

would become

visible, united,

people,

called out from

Babylon

in the same manner as the

early

church had arisen from the ashes of an

apostate

set in order with Christ as the

head, directed

by the Spirit,

and

empowered

to proclaim the last

great message

of the

Age. D. The Pentecostal

Movement: The

Experiential

The name which

ultimately

inauguration

glory.

Thus the covenant

God’s

presence

Model

over the others was

as the

Sinai was

accompanied by

of

gained ascendency

the Pentecostal Movement. Pentecost was seen

by the adherents

of a new era

accompanied by

a display of God’s

power

and

given

at Mount

clouds, darkness, fire, smoke, glory, and the personal manifestation

and Israel was constituted as a nation under the Old Testament law. The

Upper

Room

experience

by wind, fire,

and

speaking

languages,

and marked the establishment of the

early

church. The

early Pentecostals believed that the Latter Rain Revival would be

inaugu- rated

by

a second Pentecost which would

wrap up

the church

age

and

Apostles

was

accompanied

usher in the

age

to come.

recorded in the Acts of the

in

foreign

In addition to this

dispensational aspect,

the Pentecostal model also

was

applied

to the

experiential

believed that Pentecost was not

only

an event’which

era,

but a pattern to be

1

repeated history.

life in Christ. The

early

adherents

inaugurated

a new in the lives of Christians

throughout

stems from an attempt to

remnant in

every generation

A second

litany appearing

in the literature

demonstrate that this

pattern

was

normative,

and that God had a faithful

who

experience

E. “This

Gospel

of the

Kingdom”

Eschatological

Models

this kind of

Christianity.

and “The

Everlasting

Gospel”:

The

The

eschatological hope

which dominated the movement found its clearest formulation Gospel

of the

Kingdom”

and “The

Everlasting Gospel”:

the formative

stages

of in two

expressions,

“This

terms that were

1MYland, op. cit., p. 2. “This movement is also called Pentecostal… Pentecost is simply the spiritual aspect of this Covenant and means the fulness of the spirit

– 59-

9

used

interchangeably.

“And I saw another everlasting

language,

and

people. ‘Fear the ‘ timehas

14:6,7, the

heavens, carrying the

every nation, tribe,

extol his

greatness

for

The first is taken from Matthew 24:14 “This gospel

of the

kingdom

shall be

preached

in all the world for a witness and then shall the end come.” The second is taken from Revelation

angel flying through

gospel

to

preach

to those on earth-to

God,’ he shouted, ‘and ”

come when he will sit as

Judge.’

While “The

Apostolic

Faith” model enabled the adherents to com-

with that of the

early church,

the es- chatological

model enabled them to state “This

Gospel

of the

Kingdom” of the “Latter Rain” in

sharp

contrast to “The

Gospel

of Grace” of the

pare

the Pentecost

Message

“Early

Rain.”

1901, Pronouncing Age,”

he declared:

Frank W. Sandford, Parham’s mentor from Shiloh, Maine,

using

the second

phrase,

made this contrast

explicit

when he

changed

the title of his

periodical

from

Tongues of Fire

to The Everlasting Gospel in January,

his

gospel

to be “the Last Solemn

Message

of the

by

an

angel-

The First

gospel message

was

proclaimed

“good tidings

of

great joy

to all

people,

for

unto

you

is born a Saviour.”

The last

gospel message

will be likewise

proclaimed-

I saw another

angel having

the

everlasting gospel

to

preach

unto them that dwell on the earth …

to

every

nation.”

The first

represented

The first was a message of

peace

and

good

will. The

latter is to be a

message

of warning and

judgment.

“the

acceptable

The

latter,

“the

day

of

vengeance

The first

brought joy unspeakable

Savior. The

latter,

“the last solemn

message

of

the

age,”

before

judgment

year

of the Lord.”

of our God!” at the birth of a

by

a King.

,

The former

brought

the

glad tidings

to a world lost in

sin,

the “whosoever believeth in Him

might

be

justified freely through

the

redemption

Christ Jesus.”

that is in

The latter warns that same world that it is to

speedily

give

an account for the use or abuse of its

privi-

– 60-

10

lege,

and

prepares

The former

prepared

on

The first

represents

.

the

way

for the time when “the Lord Jesus shall be revealed from heaven with His mighty angels,

in

flaming

fire

taking vengeance them that

obey

not the

gospel.”

the

way

for One known as “a Man of sorrows.” The latter for the

King

of

kings.

the voice of

song singing joyfully over the hills of Bethlehem,

Highest!”

“Glory

to God in the

The second, the voice of divine

authority crying

aloud

to all lands, “Fear God and

give glory

to Him!” The first heralded One

coming

meek and

lowly, riding

on an ass into Jerusalem

to die for men.

The latter heralds One

coming

in

“great power

and

glory”

to the

City

of the

King

to

reign

“from the river to

the ends of the earth.” All hail the

power

of

1

the

everlasting gospel.

to the nations,

message

to twin foci: for

example, expressed

interests of the

preparation

These two models directed the Pentecostal

and to the church. Sandford,

concern for both these themes. His new

periodical

was

published

“in the

of the Bride to meet the

Bridegroom power

and

great glory,

and the

speedy evangelization

Apostolic Principles.”2 1. This

Gospel

of the

Kingdom

in of the world on

as a Witness

to the Nations.

return of Christ

proved

to and mission. One

early

be the

primary

motivation writer

expressed

The belief in the imminent

pre-millennial

for

evangelization

the

urgency

of the

majority

when he wrote:

1 Frank W. Sandford, The Everlasting Gospel (Shiloh, Maine), I. (January 1, 1901), p. 1.

Spirit,

.

thizer of the new 2lbid,

p. 2. John Pike, editor of The also held the view: “The two-fold Way of Faith and longtime sympa-

movement,

work of the Holy

through the Gospel, in the present dispensation, is the selection and preparation of a people for his name, and the conviction of the world of sin, of righteousness and

“Missions and the Second

Faith

judgment.” Coming,” The XXX Way of

(May 20, 1920), p. 1.

– 61-

11

With almost a billion of souls

yet

unreached

by the gospel,

and the sound of His

footstep warning

us of His near

approach,

0 how we

ought

to haste to the ends of the earth with the

1

glad news of salvation before it is too late.l

Despite

this

expressed concern,

the Pentecostals did not under- stand their task to be

converting

the world to ” Christ. Elizabeth Baker expressed

the

prevailing

view:

It (The

Gospel

of the

Kingdom)

does not

say

that it will save all

nations … God meant a witness should be . given to all the

people

of the

earth,

that Jesus Christ has come and is

coming

again,

as the

King

of the

earth,

and He Himself cannot come

until that is

preached.2

The

message

to the nations of pending judgment was to be authen- ticated

by mighty signs

and wonders. Furthermore the

message

was to be proclaimed

in the

language

of the

people by supernatural

means. The first issue of The Apostolic Faith asserted: “The

gift

of language is given with the commission ‘Go into all the world and the to every

creature.’

“3

ye preach Gospel

A month

later,

the editor

confidently

declared: “Missionaries for the

foreign fields, equipped

with several

languages,

are now on their

way

and others are

waiting

for the

way

to

open

and for the Lord to

say

`Go’ “.4

The reason for this conviction was

simple,

Christ could not come until the nations had received a final

warning, yet

all signs pointed to His imminent return. As one

early

writer

put

it:

.

.

1″The Latter Days” Word and Work (September, 1907), p. 231.

2 Elizabeth V.

of

Baker, op. cit., p. 3. John Pike makes the same point: “A careful study

Scripture indicates that God’s method for man does not move along the line of the world’s

regeneration …

It the world’s the Gospel of the Kingdom as a witness

proclaims to all evangelization … by

nations,’

‘preaching

by giving all an opportunity to receive or reject the message at will.” Pike, op. cit., p. 1. _

3The Apostolic Faith (Los Angeles), I. (September, 1906), p. 1.

4Ibid (October, 1906), p. 1.

-62-

12

If Jesus tarries until we have to learn all the

languages

of the world in colleges, He will not come soon, for not one hundredth part

of the

languages

of the world is known or

taught

in our

high

1

schools and

colleges

She went on to conclude that this was

why

the

Holy Spirit

was

supplying

the

gift

of

languages.

2. “The

Everlasting

While the

early

Pentecostals mission and

evangelism,

nonetheless

Gospel”

as the

Preparation

Unlike revival movements

of the Bride of Christ. devoted a

great

deal of effort to

it is doubtful that this was their

but to

primary

concern. J. Roswell Flower recalled:

of other

days,

the

appeal

of the

movement,

in its beginnings, was not to the unconverted,

earnest Christian believers in Christ who had already received

called the new birth.

2

a crisis

experience

“Behold, the

fanned around the

of the

church,

in order to

The

early

records show that as the adherents

world

they

went to

existing

missions to

proclaim

their

gospel. They

set forth as their

primary

task to herald a midnight

cry

to a sleeping church.

Bridegroom cometh, go ye out to meet Him.” Drawing

their message

from the Olivet Discourse in Matthew 24-25 and the Revelation of

John,

the leaders

taught

that members

become the Bride of

Christ,

must receive His seal: the

Baptism

of the Holy Spirit

evidenced

by speaking

in

tongues.

Some insisted that

only those so sealed would constitute the true

church,

but most concurred with G. T.

Taylor

who

argued

that the Bride would be a select

company called out of the church.

LTsing

the

parable

that the foolish maidens had been

justified,

the

wise,

had

but

only

those sealed with the

Spirit

would constitute

maintained been

sanctified, 3 the Bride.”

of the Ten

Virgins,

he

lColleges vs. Gifts of the Spirit.” The Bridegroom’s Messenger I (October 1,1907), p. 1.

2J. Roswell Flower, “Forward” in Klaude Kendrick, The Promise Fulfilled : A of the

History

Modern Pentecostal Movement (Springfield, MO: Gospel Publishing House,1961), p. v.

3 G. F. Taylor, The Spirit and the Bride, pp. 112-130.

– 63-

13

The

appeal

to the church then was to announce that the Bride

(i.e. The Pentecostal Movement) was putting on her

garments,

in preparation for the

marriage supper

of the Lamb. If other Christians wished to become

part

of the Bride

they

must receive the

wedding ring,

the Seal of the

Holy Spirit.

Summary

These then, I believe are the motifs which

provided

the framework by

which the

early message

was moulded. The four names of the move- ment

supplied:

1. The Doctrinal content; 2. The

World-view;

3. A Restoration theme; and 4. The

Experiential application.

The names assigned

to the

message

rooted all the motifs in an

eschatological perspective.

Thus The Word and Witness could

correctly

declare in 1914:

‘This

Gospel

of the

Kingdom

shall be

preached

in all the world

for a witness, and then shall the end coe.’ We believe under God

this is the

great message

for these

days. Baptized

saints are

agreed

and

confidently

assured that we are on the threshold of

the

greatest

event in the

history

of the

world,

viz: the imminent

appearing

of Jesus Christ to catch

away

his

waiting

Bride.

1

II.

“Complementary

Models:”

Interpretive

Tools

Having

looked at the five

major

motifs which

supplied

the structure for

early

Pentecostal

thought,

I now wish to

suggest

that construction of models from these themes can be

helpful

for at least three tasks: 1. To provide

the framework to reconstruct the

early message;

2. To

provide insight

into the

subsequent developments

which have

occurred; and 3. To

provide

the basis for the

ongoing

task of

theological

reflection. A. Reconstruction of the

Early Message.

By

this

point

it should be clear that I feel the

early message

was

lC. W. Doney, “The Gospel of the Kingdom.” Word and Witness

X

(inlelvern, Arkansas), [March 20, 1914), p. 2.

– 64-

14

rooted in eschatology. With the construction of models drawn from the major motifs,

it is relatively

easy

to demonstrate that the soon

coming

of Christ was the focal

point.

Charles Parham’s stated

purpose

for his Bible

College,

was to “fit men and women to

go to

the ends of the earth to

preach, ‘This Gospel

of the

Kingdom’ (of) Matt. 24,

as a witness to all the world before the end of the

age.2

The first issue of The

Apostolic

Faith

(Los Angeles)

relates a vision in which an

angel

told Anna Hall:

… I have come to tell

you

that Jesus is

coming.

Go forward in

my name, preach

the

Gospel

of the

Kingdom

for the

King’s

business demands haste.

My people

have

only

time to

get

on

the beautiful

garments,

and

prepare

for the

wedding supper

in

the heavens.3

Wherever the revival

spread,

the

message

was the same. In February, 1908,

Mrs. Sexton of Atlanta editoralized in The Bride- groom’s Messenger:

Jesus is Coming! Jesus is Coming! These sweet notes have been

sounding

in our ears for more than a year, and the sound has .

gone

out to the whole earth. Wherever this Pentecostal revival

has reached and

people

have received the

baptism

of the

Holy

Ghost,

this

message

of His

coming

is

usually given

in a “new

tongue”

under the

power

of the

Spirit.4

4

.

David McDowell

placed

the “Full

Gospel”

motif in this

perspective when he wrote:

1 Robert Mapes Anderson, “The Pentecostal Message” in Vision of The Disinherited: The Making of American Pentecostalism, (New York Oxford University Press, 1979), pp. 79-97, is the first Pentecostal theme. This excellent well-documented published record I have found stating that the second coming was the major history will undoubtedly affect all future

scholarship in Pentecostal Theology.

2 Sarah E. Parham, op. cit., p. 51.

3″Jesus is Coming” The Apostolic Faith (Los Angeles) I. (September 1906), p. 4.

4The Bridegroom’s Messenger (Atlanta), L (February 1, 1908), p. 1.

– 65-

15

… Salvation, the

Baptism the Ministrations

program….

not a feature of a program …

in the

Holy Spirit,

Divine

Healing,

of the

Holy Spirit among us,

are features of a The Second

Coming

of the Lord Jesus Christ is

it is the Program. The …

(others)

fulfillment.l

are features of this

program leading up

to its

grand

and

l

glorious

.

ologically.

Illustrative

eschat-

Likewise the Restoration motif was

initially interpreted

of this is Elizabeth Sisson who stated that God was …

raising up

a sign

people

in whom to demonstrate the won- drous

glories

of the latter rain and the restoration of the fulness of the

Spirit,

and those

gifts

of the

Spirit

which he

gave

at the

What does it signify …

birth of the church … hand.2

that

they

had witnessed marked the

inauguration of the

movement,

described

that the end is at

the

early

adherents understood

It is

quite

clear from the literature

a

display

of God’s

sovereign power

which

of the

eschatoligical age.

H. A. Ironside, a critic

their conviction in a

stirring

account.

In the month of April, 1906, a little band

composed chiefly of colored

people

were

praying together

Azusa street in Los

Angeles,

California. Some of them had heard of a recent

peculiar happening

in Kansas where a strange

power

had taken

possession ,

apparently

sign

of a second Pentecost, manifestation,

taken

possession

in a mission-hall on

of a

man,

and he had been

in this a

energy

that made them at

made to

speak in ‘tongues’. Day

after

day

and

night after

night

these

people,

who

thought they recognized

cried

earnestly

to God for a similar

and at last

the ‘power’

felL One

by one they

were

of by a superhuman

times insensible to all around, and caused them to pour forth in a torrent of strange sounds, often

monosyllabic

gibberish;

and

lDavid H. McDowell “The

Purpose of the Coming of the Lord” The Pentecostal Euangel (May 2, 1925), p. 2.

2 Elizabeth Sisson, A Sign People (Springfield, MO: Gospel Publishing House (1918), pp. 10-11.

66

16

again

somewhat connected strange languages.

that seemed to be in

Rain’

dispensation-the age.l

I

expression

Their

joy

knew no bounds. To them had been committed, so they believed, the

ushering

in of the ‘Latter

final Pentecost to close

up

the

present

what

happened

and St. Louis

newspapers them

“professors

speaking

in the

languages

modern Pentecostal completion Frank Bartleman

typology,

roughly

to the

“Upper

Room”

Movements.” As he tells

120

people

were

present, seeing tongues

of fire

sitting

bringing

with and

government interpre-

in

in Pentecostal

understanding.

The events at

Topeka corresponded

experience

on the

day

of Pentecost. Charles Parham offers his account of

in an article entitled “The Latter Rain: The

Story

of the Origin

of the

Original Apostolic

Or Pentecostal

it, they

were in an upper room;

approximately

12 of which were

miiaisters;

some

reported

above the heads of those who were

speaking

in tongues. Finally, when the news of this was

spread abroad, reporters

from the

Topeka,

Kansas

City

came to

investigate reportedly

of

languages, foreigners

ters.” All

agreed,

Parham

wrote,

“that the students of the

college

were

of the world.”2

If the events at

Topeka

served

as the “Upper

Room”

experience

the Azusa Street revival marked the

of the “Second Pentecost”

writing

in the

Apostolic Light

in October, 1906, echoed the

thoughts

of most if not all

early

adherents:

The fullness of time seems to have come for the church’s

complete

restoration. God has

spoken

to His servants in all

parts

of the world, and has sent

many

of them to Los

Angeles,

every

nation under Heaven once

more,

as of old,

to

go out again

into all the world with

the

glad message

of salvation. The base of operations

representing

come

up

for

‘Pentecost,’

has been

iH_ A. Ironside, Apostolic Faith Missions and the So-Called Second Pentecost York: Loizeaux

(New

Brothers, Inc., n.d.), p. 1.

2Charles F. Parham, “The Latter Rain: The Story of The Origin of the Original Apostolic or Pentecostal;Movements” in Sarah E. Parham, The Life of Charles F. Parham, pp. 51-56.

67

17

shifted, from old Jerusalem, Angeles.1

The San Francisco

earthquake

When Pentecost

ing

in San Francisco.

The

single

most

important

for the latter

‘Pentecost,’

to Los

occurring

10

days

after the out-

by

the Pente-

stated:

these

early and that the

break of the Azusa Street revival did not

go

unnoticed

costals.-It

signified

to them God’s hand

moving

in nature to authenticate their claim that the world had moved into a new era of God’s

dealing

with mankind. Frank Ewart

reflecting upon

this

experience

rocked the

religious

world with a worldwide

spiritual awakening

that struck Los

Angeles

in

1906,

an earth-

quake

of frightful dimensions rocked the

physical

world center-

In all God’s

great

moves nature

sym-

pathizes

with Him. She understands whether man does or not:

At Sinai, when God

spoke,

the earth went into convulsions.

At

Calvary

the bosom of the earth rocked

violently,

the sun

withdrew his face and all nature went into

eclipse.2

2

element which convinced

Pentecostals that the Second Pentecost had occurred

Latter Rain era had

begun

was that the revival was

accompanied by glossolalia.

Susan Duncan asked

rhetorically: .”Why

that

speaking

in tongues

distinguished revival from all others in church

history

and linked it directly to the

early rain. While

signs

and wonders had occurred before and after Pentecost,

was the

only sign “unique”

century,

to

them,

could

only signify

the

Latter Rain?” She

responded

speaking

in

tongues reappearance

in the twentieth coming

of the Latter Rain.3

As the movement

do I know this is the

this

to Pentecost. Its

to the utter-

November

spread

from this “New Jerusalem”

most

part

of the

earth,

the “Pentecostal” model became

complete. By

1908,

A. H.

Argue

was able to write:

1 The Apostolic Light, October, 1906, reprinted in Frank Bartleman, How Pentecost Came to Los Angeles: As It Was in the Beginning, Old Azusa Mission-From

My Diary, (Los Angeles: The Author, 1925), p. 89.

2Frank J. Ewart, The Phenomenon of Pentecost (.4 history of the ‘Latter Louis: Pentecostal

Rain’), (St.

Publishing House, 1947), p. 18.

3Susan A. Duncan, “What Is It?” Word and Word XXVII (August, 1910), p. 239.

– 68-

18

many

in Scotland …

Ireland, Wales, Sweden, Germany,

Wouth;

San

Marcial, Torino, Italy;

and in

Japan.l

Our hearts

rejoice

to hear of

many

faithful

witnesses, precious

souls from

nearly every part

of the

globe, receiving

the Holy

Ghost

according

to Acts

1:8, in Jerusalem, Syria, Arabia, Persia and

Armenia,

and a number of

places

in China … In India it has broken out in many

quarters

and … in forty

places

Also

many

have been

baptized

Norway,

Australia, Russia, and Tibet. In Africa West and

New

I

Mexico; Jeruca,

Though

embellished elements of the Second Pentecost anticipated

in

England, Switzerland, Holland,

Cuba; Egypt;

through

the countless

retelling

of the

story,

the

were locked

firmly

in place. The

long

latter rain had come. God’s time

table, suspended the church

age,

was

again

set in motion to

produce

would

wrap up

the end of the

age.

The twin

expressions

and “The

Everlasting Gospel”

the

Kingdom”

form this

early

Pentecostal

message.

B.

Analyzing Subsequent

Developments

Reconstruction

“Complementary

ological

focus of the formative subsequent developments

emphases

through

the events which

“This

Gospel

of summarized in

capsule

in Pentecostal

Thought

message through

the use of

of the

early

Pentecostal

Models” not

only

is

helpful

to discover the eschat-

years,

it also

provides insight

into the

of the movement as well. Because the motifs from which the models are constructed were

dynamic

and

diverse,

new

were able to

emerge

to meet the

changing

needs of the movement. Because the motifs contained certain inherent

incongruen-

divisions which rent the movement

interpreted

were “discredited.” As a consequence,

work of the

early message gradually collapsed,

New Order of the Latter Rain” revived the

construction

cies,

the

theological

inevitable. Because adherents expectations

were abandoned. When “the motifs in a

slightly

different

were

probably the motifs

literally, many

the

dynamic

frame-

and

many

of the motifs

.

in the late

1940’s,

that

1 The-Pentecostal Testimony (Toronto), Many, 1956, Citing The

November, 1908.

Apostolic Messenger,

– 69-

19

movement was

rejected

even

though,

in my

opinion,

the revival demon- strated the same concerns as the earlier movement. What has remained

of a

“distinctively

Pentecostal” “Pentecost” is a repeatable

message,

spiritual experience Christian believer, and that this

experience

an unknown

tongue.

C.

A Basis for

Theological

Reflection

it seems to

me, is that

to be

enjoyed by every is evidenced

by speaking

in

Pentecostal Studies suggest

three areas:

The third function which model construction

is to create a basis for

theological

First,

it should be

recognized

can

provide

for

reflection. I

that models are not literal

pictures

of

of aspects of

to us. Motifs have been

reality

that are not directly abandoned

These still can be recovered seriously.

reality. Rather,

I suggest they are

symbolic representations

observable

because when taken

literally they

have been discredited.

through reinterpretation

and then taken

ways

of repre-

Second,

I suggest models are

partial

and

provisional

senting reality. Therefore, they

can

produce

a helpful climate in which to

dialogue.

On the one hand

they

can

provide

the

engage

in ecumenical

Pentecostal a basis of

articulating contribution

she knows her

understanding

matic” or “Evangelical” understanding dialectic,

constructed

her conviction

that she has a

of reality. On

“Charis-

Models” are often

until new models are the

incongruencies.

to make, a deeper, more whole

understanding

the other hand she can come to dialogue not

simply

to persuade, because

is

partiaL

She can therefore learn from others. Pentecostal models laid side

by

side with

“Holiness,”

models,

for

example,

can well

provide

a deeper

of reality. Because

“Complementary

they

can hold variant data in tension

which

might

better

interpret

Finally,

I suggest that model construction can enable the movement to recover its roots.

Although

some of the

early eschatological

have had no further function once the movement was launched, I believe that the

on-going history

of any movement must

always

be

critiqued

in light

of its

origins

in the same manner that the Protestant

the whole church must be

judged

maintains

-70-

motifs-may

principle in

light

of the

Scriptures.

20

Conclusion

While

attending

a Pentecostal Bible

college,

I was

taught

that the

Baptism

of the

Holy Spirit,

evidenced “distinctively

Pentecostal”

by speaking

in tongues is the

only

the movement has made to the

However, this

My study

reductionism of the Pentecostal of the

origins

of Pentecostalism

contribution

church.

Today,

this doctrine is

being seriously challenged by

charis- matics from without and

by many

Biblical

exegetes

from within. The force of this

challenge

I suspect, will continue to

grow.

To Pentecostals who have

placed

the

identity

and

integrity

of the movement

upon

this doctrine, such

a challenge is understandably threatening.

message

is most

regrettable.

leads me to concur with the editor of Word and Work when he wrote in 1910.

We are not as

many suppose, wholly

taken

up

with the mere

experience, solely

with reference to the

matter of individual baptism

of the

Holy Spirit …

.

this is but one

phase

of a many

sided and

mightily

divine movement toward the restoration of the church to her lost estate. This revival is much in the nature of a Reformation. The Protestant Reformation was

only partial … now the

Spirit

is

stirring up

the church to a

great

and forward movement for the full

recovery

delivered to the saints.1

of the “faith once

IMorton W. Plummer “The Latter Rain Reformation-Revival” Word and Work XXX II (February, 1910), pp. 36-37; reprinted in The Bridegroom’s Messenger V (June 1, 1912), p. 3; and as a tract.

– 71-

21

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