The Charismatic Movement In Finland And North America

The Charismatic Movement In Finland And North America

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50

The Charismatic

Movement

in Finland

and North

America

Harri Heino*

1. The Manifold Nature of the Charismatic Movement as a

Research Problem.

As

you know,

the

beginnings

of the charismatic or Neo-Pentecostal movement are

usually

dated back to the events which took

place

in the Episcopal

Church,

Van

Nuys,

California in 1959 and 1960.

Later,

most Protestant denominations in the USA

experienced

a new

spiritual renewal,

and in 1967 it reached the Catholic Church, too.

Today

it is represented

in all

major

denominations around the world.

Beliefs and

practices previously unique

to classical Pentecostalism began

to

appear among

the members of

mainline, non-Pentecostal denominations first in America and

eventually

on other continents. Participants

in

this

Neo-Pentecostal renewal

joined together

in

prayer groups

in which

they

received the

Baptism

of the

Spirit,

an intense spiritual experience, together

with the attendant charismatic

gifts

of the Spirit,

chief

among

them the

gift

of

tongues

and those of

prophecy

and healing by

faith.

The

development

of charismatic renewal has

already given grounds for

inquiry

as to how far those features

regarded

as

typical

of the charismatic movement are in fact derived from the

religious

cultures of American life and Classical Pentecostal Revivalism.

Since it was in America that the charismatic movement

emerged

it is only

natural that research into it should have had its

beginning

there. More

recently, too,

the chief focal

point

has remained on that

continent, and the

conceptions

reached elsewhere of an authentic charismatic renewal derive to a

great

extent from studies of the movement in America. This is reflected

among

other

things

in the fact that the

special features most

intensively investigated

are

mainly

those characteristic of the American charismatic movement. Above all else research has concentrated on the

gift

of

tongues,

which in the initial

phases

of the movement in the United States attracted the most attention even if that phenomenon

hasn’t been

equally emphasized

in some other countries. One of the most recent

approaches

in the

study

of the movement has been to

compare

it with other transdenominational movements and to interpret

it as a religious trend or

tendency

rather than a specific move- ment with a clearly defined

following

and

organization.

This

point

of departure

is

naturally

associated with the continued

expansion

and increasingly

international character of charismatic renewal.

*Dr. Harri Heino, Director of the Research Lutheran Church,

Tampere,

Finland.

Institute

of the

1

The charismatic

51

movement has assumed different forms in different countries and has been received differently

by

different churches. This

with the

phase

of

development

reached

by

the

charismatic movement at the time it entered the

country

in

seems to be connected international

question.

The historical

development

charismatic movement

of the international can be divided into four

major phases:

1. A Neo-Pentecostal

understood

religiosity,

phase immediately in terms of the Pentecostal

after the

year 1960,

to be impulse

and American

2. A phase in which the peculiar identity of the charismatic movement

this was characterized

by

alliance-based

of the Pentecostal elements in the move-

ment and a search for

authenticity.

became

crystallized; gatherings,

modification

ences were the American organizations functioning Churches.

gained

At this

stage

the

prime

influ- charismatic centers,

publishers

and independently

of the established

The

the charismatic

3. In the third

phase

the renewal

adapted

to Church traditions.

a foothold within the

Churches,

in

the Catholic Church.

Simultaneously

shifted the

emphasis

from alliance based

gatherings,

ecumenical connections.

charismatic movement particular

movement

increasingly

towards

its

religious

confidential relationship charismatic

ment

eminent

evangelical 1977, indicating

4. The fourth

step

in the charismatic movement’s accommodation to

context

happened

after it succeeded in

developing

a

with the mainstream

of evangelicals.

The

and non-charismatic movement

accepted

a joint state-

in the Church of England

(including

Michael

Harper

and the

leaders James Packer and John R.W.

Scott)

in

a basic conciliation

baptism.

This statement was later enhanced

with which

neo-pentecostals

gelicals

have been featured

together

in revival

campaigns,

to evangelism, church

growth,

and

the

family),

and on

religious

radio and television

programs.l

I

regularity

ences

(especially

those

relating

to the charismatic

Lutheran Church at the end of

on the matter of

Spirit

by

the

increasing and

non-pentecostal

evan-

confer-

movement

been

adapted

and in the

early

sixties

Answers to the

following questions

will be sought in this article: 1. To what extent has the charismatic

molded on its

way

from its American

beginnings

renewal

exerting

its influence within the Finnish

the seventies?

2. What features of the

original

movement

appear

to be essential to its

and which ones, on the other hand, have varied most

nature

Publishers, 1976, 1983),

lRichard Quebedeaux, The New Charismatics II (San Francisco: Harper & Row,

83.

2

52

according

to social, cultural, and

religious

context? 3. What factors have

brought

about the

molding

movement into the Finnish Lutheran

Renewal in our Church?”

of the charismatic movement called

“Spiritual

describe the

emergence movement.

In order to be able to answer these

questions

and

development

2. The Charismatic Movement

Finland

The Finnish charismatic

we must first

briefly of the Finnish charismatic

in the Lutheran

Church of

movement,

may

be

regarded

in

many respects

as

pared

to the American

national charismatic renewal reached Finland

through

the Pentecostal

phenomenon.

press

in the mid-sixties. Other Finnish churches charismatic movement first charismatic conference pants

included

clergymen

in

particular

its Lutheran

form, an

opposite

extreme when com- The first

impulses

from the inter-

and the Salvation

Army.

After a

did not

really

start to

pay

attention to the

until the

early

1970s. In November

1971,

the

was held. The

approximately sixty partici-

and

preachers

from the Lutheran

Church,

the Free

church,

the

Baptists,

Methodists,

held in Stockholm in

1972, interdenominational

groups began

to arise in Helsinki. Their activities included a more extensive series of meetings with

guest speakers mainly from the other Nordic Countries and Britain.

charismatic conference charismatic

also

The Finnish movement

from

America,

but

in the mid- and late seventies.

Thus, nessmen’s

Fellowship

International, charismatic movement,

in

national

organization

there.

did not arise out of

impulses coming directly

above all out of those from

England

and Scandinavia

for

example,

the Full

Gospel

Busi-

so

prominent

in the American

didn’t succeed in gaining

any footing

in Finland the late sixties or early seventies even

though

it tried twice to build a

Niilo Yli-Vainio,

began

The charismatic movement

proper may

be said to have

emerged fully in Finland in the summer of 1977, when a retired Pentecostal

preacher,

to attract

people

in the thousands to

meetings held in various

parts

of the

country.

What was “new” in these

gather-

their witness of

healing,

the

impact

of prayers of

intercession,

of

participants

in the

Spirit,”

and an

increasingly

the

preacher

towards other

denominations,

including

meetings.

steered

public

discussion

revival in Finland has received so much

public

The first

newspaper

the autumn of 1977. At the same

time,

the

reporting

of the

newspapers

features of the movement: the

healings

and swoon- ings.

The actual

message

of the movement

ings

was

the

swooning

“slain positive

attitude of

the Lutheran Church.

No other

religious

attention so

quickly

as Yli-Vainio’s articles

appeared

as

early

as sensationalist

towards the

special

was often lost in the back-

3

53

.

ground.

It was

partly

for this reason that the first

impressions

of

many people, including

members of the Lutheran

Church, were rather negative.

It is

interesting

to note that the

meaning

of the new revival was perceived very

differently by

the

press

and

by

the

participants

of the meetings.

While the

healings

and the

gifts

of

spirit

aroused most discussion in the

press, completely

different

things

were considered important by

the

participants.

For them the most

important aspect

was a renewal of

religious

life,

with a

greater intensity

in

praying coming second, increased study

of the Bible

third,

and the

experience

of

being filled with the

Holy Spirit

fourth.

These,

of

course,

are

typical

features of Pentecostalism and other

spiritual movements,

and a far

cry

from sensations or

special emphases. Healing

was

only

mentioned in fifth place,

and

gifts

of the

Spirit

were at the bottom of the list.

Twenty percent

of the

participants

said

they

had themselves been cured of an illness at the

meetings,

and one third said

they

felt healthier than before.

Yli-Va-Vainio

represented

a purely Pentecostal

conception

of Chris-

tianity.

From a doctrinal

point

of

view,

the summer of 1977 did not

bring

with it

any

ideas alien to Pentecostalism. Yli-Vainio’s

preaching

with its

special

features meant above all a revival of the classical Pente-

costal traditions. Even the

organization

of the

meetings

was without

exception

taken care of

by

local Pentecostal

congregations,

even

though

a considerable

part

of the

participants

were members of other

churches,

especially

the Lutheran Church.

The mode of

activity

Yli-Vainio launched and the

subsequent

debate

began

to be felt within the Finnish Lutheran Church about the

beginning ‘

of 1978. To a great extent what was involved was the

emergence

in the

public

awareness of this movement and its

rapid growth.

Within the

Lutheran Church the renewal

quickly spread

to numerous

congrega-

tions all over Finland. In Finland the

development

of the charismatic

4

54

established Churches

of its

impulses

into the

movement led

quite

soon to a

channelling

and

religious

communities. Its main

impact

has been seen within the Lutheran movement known as

“Spiritual

Renewal in our Church.”

Today

we can find charismatic

activity

in

every

fourth Lutheran

parish.

3. Differences between

America and Finland

the charismatic

In North America pants

bom

among

the

prosperous

movements in North

in the Van

Nuys

Socio-demographic features

the charismatic renewal received the first

partici-

above all from middle- and

upper-class

circles. The renewal was

section of the

population

suburb of Los

Angeles,

and its introduction into Catholic circles like- wise took

place through

the mediation of intellectuals,

the

campuses

of

Duquesne,

Notre Dame and

ers and students Michigan.2

on

.

clearly questionnaire

university

teach-

to data obtained

by with

university

or other about

12%, matriculation

in

The Finnish Lutheran charismatic movement has

by

no means been so

an

upper-class phenomenon. According

(Heino

1979

b), participants

advanced

educational

backgrounds comprised

and intermediate level 15% and basic or technical 21%. About half of all participants

had

only elementary schooling

or less.

Even fewer trained

persons

were to be found

among participants Pentecostal charismatic

gatherings (Heino

1979

a).

Here

only

2%-3% had advanced academic studies behind them and over 60% had no more than

elementary schooling.

first

participants

of the charismatic

in Finland than in North America.

The

age

structure of the was also much older

The

relationships

to the Classical Pentecostalism

aspects

tongues, healing, prophecy

those features of

movement

In the initial

phase

of the international charismatic movement the inter- est of both the media and the Churches focused on

special

doctrinal

of the movement such as

baptism

in the

Holy Spirit,

the

gift

of

and other

spiritual gifts.

In the first official documents of American churches

dealing

with the charismatic move- ment in the

beginning

of the 1960’s it was

usually

called the

“speaking in

tongues

movement.” It was thus seen

mainly

as a doctrinal renewal

the Christian Faith

represented by

the classical Pentecostal Revival. On this basis the charismatic movement was

interpreted

as Neo-Pentecostal

was

only

natural that the attitude of the traditional Churches towards it

emphasizing

was

highly

critical.

in the full sense of the

word, and it

2Quebedeaux,

The New Charismatics: The Origins, Development, and cance

Signifi-

of Neo-Pentecostalism (New York: Doubleday and Company, Inc., 1976), 109.

5

55

Especially

since the

penetration

of charismatic renewal into the

sphere of the Catholic Church, it has become

increasingly

clear that

many

of its non-doctrinal features, too, are derived from Pentecostalism and the religious

culture of other Protestant Churches in the United States. One reads, for example,

in the

report

of the

group

led

by

Cardinal Suenens investigating

the nature of the charismatic movement:

.

The manner in which the gifts were exercised in the renewal movements outside the Roman Church, the socio-cultural context in which those movements

experienced

the

presence

at a conscious

level, and the religious vocabulary

and style in which they expressed

walking in the differ from the

Spirit, generally theological-cultural style which charac- terizes most of Catholic life.3

.

In particular Kilian McDonnell is

emphatic

in pointing out that

many so called “charismatic” features such as clapping,

shouting, screaming, running

round the

assembly,-“dancing

in the

Spirit”

and

rolling

in the aisles are

merely examples

of the cultural

baggage

of Classical Pente- costalism and not to be confused with what is essential to the nature and operation

of the

spiritual gifts.

Taken in broad outline, the international charismatic movement had during

the two decades of its

development

moved from a fairly clearly defined Pentecostal

interpretation

of faith to a reassessment and theo- logical analysis

within the terms of each

religious community.

Above all, since

it reached

Europe,

the renewal has meant

rather,

renewal and reformation of the established Churches, than a

penetration

of new doctrine into their traditional framework. The movement wants to understand itself as a renewal “in the Church and of the church.”4 In Finland, too, there were fears

expressed

that the charismatic move- ment

might carry

alien elements of Pentecostal doctrine into the heart of the Lutheran Church or that Pentecostal

congregations might

seek to win over Lutheran members who have

experienced

charismatic renewal. It would nevertheless

appear

that

although

Pentecostal

activity

had been revitalized with the

coming

of the charismatic renewal and the number of baptisms

increased,

this has

mainly

been a regeneration of Classical Pentecostalism under the influence of charismatic elements rather than any

increment of the Pentecostal

community

at the

expense

of the Lutheran Church. Nor have there been

greater

efforts on the

part

of Pentecostal

Congregations

to effect such transfers of

membership.

On the

contrary

the connections between the Pentecostals and the Evan- gelical-Lutheran

Church of Finland have

improved.

3Theological and Pastoral

Orientations on the Catholic Charismatic Renewal. Malines, Belgium (May 21-26, 1974) (Notre Dame, Indiana: Word of Life, 1974), 27-28.

4″Theological Guidelines for the Charismatic Congregational Renewal in Protes- tant Churches” (“Wdrzburg Theses”] in Kilian McDonnell, ed., Presence, Power, Praise: Documents on the Charismatic Renewal

(Collegeville,

Minnesota: The Liturgical Press, 1980),

2:147-150.

6

56

There has been a change in the manifestations of spiritual

response

in charismatic

gatherings

held inside the Lutheran Church of Finland. Swooning

or

“slaying

in the

Spirit”-a

Pentecostal feature

typical

at the outset of Neo-Pentecostalism in Finland-has

given way

to confession and

spiritual counseling

at the altar of the church. The

concept

of baptism

of the

Holy

Ghost borrowed from Pentecostalism is likewise being supplanted by

the

concept

of

being

filled with

Holy

Ghost as a continuation and renewal of that work of the

Spirit

which

begins

in infant

baptism.

The

gift

of

tongues,

which drew so much attention in the

early phases of the charismatic movement in the USA and

internationally,

is also less conspicuous

in the Lutheran context in Finland.

Surveys

showed that only

one in ten

participants

in Lutheran charismatic

meetings

has ever “spoken

in

tongues” (Heino

1979).

Nor is

speaking

in

tongues

seen to be closely associated with the

baptism

of the

Holy Ghost,

as it has often been in the American Charismatic Renewal.

Healing by prayer,

on the other

hand,

has

been

a prominent feature in Finland, too.

The charismatic renewal has, however, to some extent contributed to an increase in contact between the Pentecostal Revival and the Lutheran Church. Those involved in the movement are anxious to have more contacts between the confessions. Relations between Finland’s Luther- ans and Pentecostals have

improved

so much in recent

years

that

they have now been able to sit down around a table and

openly

address theological questions

and more

practical problems

that have been caus- ing

friction. The first round of official talks between the

Evangelical- Lutheran Church of Finland and the Finnish Pentecostal Revival

began in 1987.

The

development

of the charismatic renewal in the Lutheran Church of Finland

might, then,

be characterized as a search for a Finnish and a Lutheran

identity.

Its mainstream has

continually sought

to elucidate the discoveries and

experiences

of the renewal movement from its own Lutheran

point

of

departure.

In the

process, many

doctrinal

expressions and functional

patterns

of Pentecostal

origin

have received a new inter- pretation,

or have been abandoned as

being

inessential or alien to the traditions of the Lutheran Church.

The

Relationships of

the Charismatic Movement to the Traditional Churches

It has been characteristic of the charismatic movement from the outset that members of Churches

experiencing

this renewal have not left their congregations.

On the

contrary, they

have

begun

to

participate

with greater

zeal in

congregational

activities. Nevertheless since the

early stages

of the movement charismatic

organizations, centers,

and

publish- ers not affiliated with

any

of the historic denominations have

played

a prominent

role in

defining

the direction of the movement in America. Such bodies in the USA have included, the Full

Gospel

Businessmen’s

7

57

Fellowship

International,

the

Melodyland

Christian Center

(Anaheim, California),

Oral Roberts

University (Tulsa, Oklahoma),

the

Kathryn Kuhlman Foundation,

Logos

International

(Plainfield,

New

Jersey),

the Christian Growth Ministries (Fort Lauderdale, Florida), and later a number of TV

preachers.

On the whole,

they

have

promoted

the independence

of the charismatic movement from the historic churches. Particularly

in the United

States,

but also in other areas where

congre- gations

are

usually

formed on a non-parochial basis, distinctive charis- matic

congregations

have arisen within the historic denominations themselves.

As the charismatic movement has

spread

from America to

Europe

its influence has been felt with

increasing

clearness within the established Churches. The

objective

has been a renewal not

simply

of individual Christians but of entire Church communities and

congregations.

The name of the magazine of the charismatic

community

in German

speaking Europe

is characteristic: Die

Erneuerung

in der Kirche und

Gesellschaft (“The

Renew’al in the Church and

Society”).

The charismatic renewal in its Finnish Lutheran form has from the beginning

been characterized

by

its close associations with the activities of the

parochial congregation

as such. It has also been characterized from the outset

by

close

cooperation

with the most

powerful evangelical movements of the Lutheran Church. The Lutheran Charismatic move- ment has found outlet

chiefly

as a renewal of traditional small

groups and revival movements in the

congregations,

rather than the

emergence of new

prayer groups

of charismatic nature.

The advent of the charismatic movement in Finland

did, however,

also bring

with it both international and domestic charismatic

communities, most of them transdenominational

by

nature.

However, none of them has been as

strong

as the charismatic centers and

organizations

in the USA.

In Finland the charismatic movement

gained

a footing

precisely

inside the different established Churches. For

example,

in

surveys

made of participants

in the charismatic

gatherings

of the Lutheran Church 95% were found to be members of the Lutheran Church and

nearly

70% of them active in their own

congregations.

About half of them also regarded

themselves as

belonging

to one of the Revival movements working

within the Lutheran Church.

The

organizations

of the charismatic

meetings

has

also, for the

most part,

been undertaken

by

Lutheran

congregations

or Lutheran

evangeli- cal associations.

Nearly

all members of the committee

responsible

for coordinating

the charismatic conferences and other activities within the Lutheran Church have themselves been ministers of the Church. When

participants

in

gatherings

of the Finnish Lutheran charismatic movement were asked what attendance at such

meetings

meant to them it emerged

that renewal of spiritual life was most

significant, secondly

an

8

58

_

intensified

spirit

of

prayer, thirdly

a more active

study

of the Bible and fourthly

a revival of

spiritual counselling

and of confession.

Only

fifth was the

experience

of fullness with the Holy Spirit, sixth the

healing

of sickness and far behind these the bestowal of

spiritual gifts.

The most significant impulses

were thus more or less the same as those

received, for

example,

from the traditional Finnish Revival movements.

There is no doubt that the ever clearer commitment of the charismatic movement to a renewal of the traditions of the historic Churches has contributed to the

change

which has taken

place

in attitudes towards the movement in

originally

critical Church circles. In

Finland, where the movement was

particularly

late in

taking root,

its members have from the

very

outset

upheld

the

conception

of their role as regenerators of the Lutheran confession of faith. This

goes

a long way to explain why the Finnish Lutheran Church has never at any stage been

rigidly opposed

to the renewal.

9

59

The Renewal of Religious

Culture Particularly

the traditional bodies of wish to introduce

claim that “What charismatics of doctrine, but a fresh

experience.”

since the charismatic movement has

gained

a foothold in

the Church it has

begun

to stress that it has no

new doctrines. We can refer to

Larry

Christenson’s

are

bringing ”

forth is not a new statement

atmosphere

marked emphases,

similar to the new social movements, generations.Examples

2. Spontaneity,

and social traits and

and

many

other

expressiveness,

What is involved is above all a spiritual renewal, the creation of a new

chiefly by psychological

Human Potential movement

especially

those influential

among

the

younger

of these are:

1. Religious

experience,

emotional

involvement,

non-verbal forms of communication,

3. Openness,

interpersonal honesty, interpersonal relationships,

awareness, rediscovery of the

supranatural,

5. Stress on

happening,

and

in diversity, differentiation of

talents,

abilities and

4. Expectation,

6.

Spiritual unity

gifts.5

..

adaptation The

Norwegian Pentecostalism,

with the

attention on those

aspects

of

Many

of the above features are

by

nature

clearly

associated

of religious life to cultural

change.

scholar Nils Bloch-Hoell, in his studies of Classical

has focussed

particular

American culture which have

promoted

the

emergence precisely

of this type

of movement in American

society.6

It would

appear

that

many

of those features

apply equally

well in an analysis of the American form of

the charismatic movement.

movement,

and new

religious is one connected

Religious experiences

have been

mostly

talked about in connection with Pentecostalism, the charismatic

It seems, however, that the

phenomenon

in western culture as a whole. It aims at ecstasy,

as seen

e.g.

in the beat of the music favored

by

the

young.

The

movements. to a more

large-scale

change

phenomenon

has been

commonly

interpreted

as a reaction

against

the

and the

rationally

controlled verbal,

and moralistic nature of the

psychologizing

monotonous nature of western

technology

society

and

against

the rationalistic,

message

offered

by

the churches. A new current of Romanticism and a

of human nature are

exposing

western rationalism is both

historically

and

geographically

conception

elitist.

the fact that limited and

the

problematic

element its inclusion of

From the

standpoint

of the Churches, however,

in the

religious

culture of charismatic renewal lies

mainly

in

features associated with the

religiosity

of Classical

5Quebedeaux, The New Charismatics, 113, 191.

6Nils Bloch-Hoell, The Pentecostal Movement: Its

Origin, Development,

and Distinctive Character (Oslo: Universitctsforiage”ndon: Allen & Unwin/New York: Humanities Press, 1964), 5-17.

10

60

Pentecostalism. The

difficulty

is to distinguish these traits. It is indeed pointed

out in the

report

drawn

up by

the Catholic charismatic work group

led

by

Cardinal Suenens that:

It is also possible that one theological culture can learn from another

different theological culture. For instance, the

theological

culture of

classical Pentecostalism or of Protestant

quite

neo-Pentecostalism may point

to elements in the Catholic

theological

culture which belong to the

foundation of that culture and to the nature of the Church but which are

.

not a normal part of Catholic

theological culture, at least as it is mani-

fested in the day-to-day life of the local church. In brief, there is the

necessity

of

reintegrating

the charismatic renewal into the Catholic

culture, but in such a way that nothing of the authentic biblical realities

are compromised

With

respect

to religious life, Finland

may

be

regarded

as outstand- ingly

uniform. Diversification of religiosity has been

notably slow,

even though

the traditional Churches-the

Evangelical

Lutheran and the Orthodox-have in some measure lost followers to other

religious communities. Most of those who have

relinquished

their

membership

in the Lutheran Church have not

joined any

other

religious groups.

For example

the Catholic Church in Finland has a membership of

only

some 3,600. In addition to

the traditional churches there are almost 30 communities

registered

under the

Religious

Freedom Act, but all in all they represent only

about 1 % of the

population.

All Pentecostals taken

together

amount to 1 % as well.

Considering

the forms in which the Finnish

“Spiritual

Renewal in our Church” movement has manifested itself it is not difficult to understand

how little chance the charismatic culture has had to gain a footing. After all,

particularly

in rural

areas,

the

predominating

traditions are still

fairly firmly

rooted in Lutheranism, and the

community heritage

and

gather- ings

of the Revival movements

constitute,

for the most

part, congrega- tional functions

open

to all comers.

4. Factors

influencing

the formation of the Finnish Charis-

matic Movement.

In conclusion I would like to outline some of the main factors that seem to have influenced the formation of the Finnish charismatic movement.

1. Finland is

geographically

so located that it’s far

away

from the most innovative cultural and

religious

centers of the world, such as Califor- nia, where the charismatic

movement has arisen. The Finnish

language has been an extra barrier to ward off the

rapid

and direct

impact

of new impulses.

The international charismatic movement found

its ‘way

into Finland at a much later

stage

than in most

countries,

in a situation where it had

already

reached its third

phase

of development as described in the beginning

of this

paper,

when its influence was felt

mainly

within the

?Theological and Pastoral Orientations [Malines #1], 28-29.

11

established

61

impulses

came not

straight

European religious

2. In the cultural circumstances

denominations. The decisive

from America but

through European

countries,

already adapted

to the

and cultural

atmosphere.

before it could

gain Finnish

population

the

country.

This

may towards new

impulses, North America.

Nowadays

of

Finland,

there are features which .

to adapt itself to them

which was dominated

by

a

those

coming

from so far

away

as

in the

for their

part obliged

the charismatic movement

access. Until the

fifties,

more than half of the

lived in the

countryside

uniform traditional culture. Even

today

most

people

have been bom in

be one of the reasons

why

we are rather reserved

especially

the attitudes are

changing, especially cities and

among

the

younger generation..

likewise differs in many

respects

from the

To

begin

with,

the uniform Lutheran

background

stands in

of the American

churches,

the

standing

of the

a folk church with its features of earlier State Church models in contrast to the American tradition of free churches. The

parochial

structure of the

congregations

an obstacle to the

emergence

of

separate

charismatic

3. Finnish

religious

culture American.

contrast to the

multiplicity Lutheran Church as

within the Church.

charismatic

congregations. of

cals in Finland from unlike

evangelicals strongest controversy

between

really

took root

in Finland, has constituted

congregations

Church in Finland

to the

and charismatics was

4. The

positive

attitude of the Lutheran

movement has been

promoted by

the

traditionally strong

and respected position

of Revival movements inside the Church. The church leaders had become accustomed to letting them work

freely

in Lutheran

Likewise from Revivalist

quarters-with

the

exception

certain minorities of

evangelicals-there

has been no

sharp opposi- tion to charismatic renewal. The main reason

why

most of the

evangeli-

the

beginning accepted

the charismatic

renewal,

in the USA or Great

Britain, seems to be that the

evangelicals

already

over on the international level when the charismatic movement

in Finland in the late seventies.

5. The attitude of the Pentecostal Revival to the charismatic movement in Finland has influenced its formation in at least two

respects.

In the first

place,

in contrast to what has occurred in some other

countries, the

have not

actively sought

to recruit

membership

for their own

congregations

from

among

Lutherans involved in the charismatic

rather have

expressed appreciation

of the fact that the

the Lutheran Church. On the other

hand, again,

it is clear that the

presence

in fact had the effect of

keeping

in the Church

have been drawn to Pentecostalism.

Pentecostals

movement, but

renewal is at work within

Lutheran

sphere

has

parishioners

who

might

otherwise

of charismatic renewal within the

12

62

Henry Lederle,

Treasures Old and New.

Interpretations of “Spirit-Baptism”

in the Charismatic Renewal Movement (Peabody, Ma, Hendrickson, 1988),

264

pp. $14.95 paper, ISBN 0-913573-75-2

This is the most

complete presentation

of the

confusingly

diverse doctrines on

Spirit-baptism

in the charismatic movement I have come across.

Henry

Lederle, serving

on the staff of the

University

of South Africa, summarizes the

views of over

forty

authors from the denomina- tional charismatics and those charismatics who have formed new, inde- pendent

structures, often

called non-denominational charismatics.

He divides them

theologically

into four

categories:

1. Neo-Pentecostals resemble the classical Pentecostals in

many instances.

They

teach a second

stage

in Christian life

subsequent

to conversion and

generally resulting

in the

gift

of

speaking

in

tongues.

2. The

sacramental interpretation

sees

Spirit-baptism

as an experience which releases the

Spirit

which was

given by water-baptism.

3. A more

evangelical interpretation

sees

Spirit-baptism

as

the final stage of Christian

initiation

completing

an otherwise

incomplete

initia- tion. There is some

overlap

with the second

category. They

use terms such

as fullness

or

infilling.

4. Lederle favours an

interpretation

of

Spirit-baptism

as a

spiritual growth experience,

a highlight or milestone-encounter. It is losable and repeatable

and does not

necessarily

lead to the exercise of charisms. It avoids the

danger

of dividing Christians into two classes.

The

neo-pentecostal position

comes under

heavy

fire from Lederle for its well-known deficiencies.

According

to him it is the least

acceptable interpretation. Lately

it has also been criticized within the classical pentecostal

movement,

especially amongst

the Assemblies of

God, despite

their declaration of faith which

explicitly

teaches a two

stage experience.

Lederle does not

question

the actual

religious experience

of Spirit-baptism

but its

interpretation.

The so-called

theology

of subse- quence,

of “conditions” for

Spirit-baptism

and of initial evidence needs “to be

repudiated theologically.” (218)

It favours a

superficial

under- standing

of sin and has no

understanding

for the simul iustus simul peccator

of the Reformation. “One fact can be categorically stated: there is no biblical or experiential reason to suppose that one can

identify

the more advanced or

holy

Christians

by establishing

whether or not

they have had a

particular second-stage experience usually

evidenced

by glossolalia. Experience

itself soon shows that on either side of this dividing

line one finds carnal and

spiritual

Christians.”

(219)

“The mere naming

the

experience ‘baptism

in the

Holy Spirit’

was a

theological decision –

unfortunately

an incorrect one.”

(221)

According

to Lederle more charismatics

accept

the sacramental inter- pretation

than

any

other. He notes that the

liturgical

or sacramental

High

.

13

63

Church

traditions were more

open

to the renewal than the more conser-

vative

evangelical

denominations. “The Pentecostal doctrine of

Spirit-

baptism

as the

reaching

of a

‘plateau’,

an elitist

second-stage

for ‘first-

class’ Christians receives

here its

strongest critique.” (112)

I am not

sure whether this is

true since the Catholic tradition has

always

had

some elements of

a “Stufentheorie.” I am also not sure whether Lederle

does

justice

to Simon

Tugwell,

a Dominican from

Oxford,

who

rejects

the

tw o-stage theory

of

Spirit-baptism

but thinks

very highly

of

speak-

ing

in

tongues.

Is it not

possible

to un-couple speaking in

tongues

from

Spirit-baptism?

I am also not convinced that the

“filioque-controversy”

(which

Lederle calls an “abstract distinction”

(134))

is ecumenically not

of great

significance.

The third

category

is similar to the second and does not need to be

discussed here in detail. The most

interesting part

of the book is

Lederle’s own

proposal

of a doctrine of

Spirit-baptism (fourth

cate-

gory).

“Where

Spirit-baptism

is divested of its Pentecostal

mystique

and

definitiveness, where

it is

stripped

of its elitist

tendency

and

interpreted

as a spiritual

growth experience

of the charismatic dimension of Chris-

tian

life,

it can be directly

incorporated

and

recognized

as an element in

the

general

Christian doctrine of sanctification

(as

an

ongoing process

which allows for both

crisis-experience

and

gradual step-by-step

advancement).” (215)

“The essential

reality

which

Spirit-baptism repre-

sents is then not the second

stage

of a “Stufentheorie,” but the essential

insight

that the Christian life should have an experiential dimension to it.

In

openness

to the

Spirit

and in the

acceptance

of the full

range

of

spiri-

tual

gifts

or charisms lies the

genius

of the Pentecostal and charismatic

movements. It is encouraging that ‘avant

garde’

Pentecostal

theologians

are

coming

to this same realization

today,

and

lonely prophetic

voices

from within classical Pentecostalism like Leonhard Steiner from

Switzerland and

many

German Pentecostals “have been

defending

a

position

which amounts to much the same as this since the 1930s.”

(216) Consequently

the heart of Lederle’s contribution is an ecumenical ‘

reformation

theology

which does not focus on

Spirit-baptism

but on the

dimension of the

Spirit

in all his

gifts.

These

gifts

are not confined to

those listed in the New Testament. Charisms are not

necessarily

“supernatural”

or

“extra-ordinary.” Theology

or

fighting

for

justice

is

also a charism in Lederle’s

opinion.

On the other

hand,

the

Spirit

has

“surprises” (Thomas Aquinas)

in store for us. More is

possible

for the

Spirit

than what we

normally expect.

In short:

Spirit-baptism

is one of

the

metaphors

used to describe the

way

a person becomes and remains a

Christian.

(238)

This is an

impressive programme.

The

specialist

will realize the

heavy

influence of reformed and reformation

theology.

The

attempt

to interpret

Spirit-baptism

in Calvin’s and

Zwingli’s theological categories

raises

also a number of questions for further reflection.

14

64

Lederle

explains why

he has left out the

growing

black charismatics in Europe,

the USA and Africa. He

gives

as a reason that their

“perspec- tive is not

really

associated with the charismatic movement. The charis- matic movement,

although penetrating

all

groups

and social classes

was, and

is, largely

a middle-class white

phenomenon except possibly among the Catholics in South America.”

(214)

But,

if one takes Lederle’s definition of charisma

seriously

and does not confine it to the charismata

appearing

in the

“largely

middle-class” charismatic

groups,

then

many

more Christians are charismatics

exactly in the sense in which he describes them. That

they

do not write much on Spirit-baptism (or interpret

these

milestone-experiences

in terms drawn from their

pre-christian

tradition or in other biblical

categories)

should not

disqualify

them since the term

“baptism

in the

Holy Spirit” is, according

to Lederle, an erroneous

concept.

But more

importantly,

we might

learn from these black Christians that it is possible in one and the same church to have different

theologies, christologies, pneumatolo- gies-just

as

was

the case in New Testament times-and

yet

be “one in Christ.” We

might

learn that a unified

theology

is not a necessary and perhaps

not even a desirable

way

of

expressing

the

unity

of the church. A harmonized

theology

is an Aristotelian

concept

of truth which has its relative

validity

but is not

applicable

to all cultures. Such Christians might

also

encourage

us to take a second hard look at the doctrine of the spirit (ruach Jahwe)

in the Old Testament. We

might

even consider with that other famous South African, David Du

Plessis, whether or not non- Christians have

gifts

of the

Spirit

It is

legitimate

that Lederle does not discuss these

questions.

One of the

qualities

of his book is his concentration on

Spirit-baptism.

This is an

important

book,

complete,

well-documented and written with

sym- pathy

for the charismatic and the ecumenical movement.

Dr. Walter J.

Hollenweger,

Professor of

Mission,

University mingham, Birmingham, England.

of Bir-

15

D. A. Carson.

Showing

the tion

of

1 Corinthians 12-14 229

pp.

$12.95.

ISBN 0-8010-2521-4.

D. A. Carson, an established

cals college

its

gelicals

and Pentecostals. offer

members of the

Society

The book is

ography

while

psychoanalysis

lection to cite

is treated as the

lynch pin

It must be said and

theologically

Pentecostal

movement

including of

Spirit-baptism

doctrine.

he distinctions

65

Spirit: (Grand

A

Theological Exposi- Rapids: Baker, 1987),

between

Evangeli-

to

pew.

His on Evan-

are dealt with

sparingly.

he

of the

data,

exegetically is not above

citing

an inso-

to his criticisms of the

aware of how

that would better

to

pursue

.

evangelical scholar, engages pneumato- logical

issues that continue to

generate controversy

and Pentecostals. His erudition makes the work

acceptable

and

seminary

students while his

pastoral sensitivity

in terms of specific suggestions

made and

personal history exposed

contributes to

usefulness for those who have contact with the

pentecostal

research

spans

a broad

theological spectrum

while

focusing

The footnotes

(at

the bottom of the

pages)

even more

quality

interaction and a working

knowledge

of

many

For Pentecostal Studies

(although

most influ- enced

by colleague Wane

Grudem).

a theological exposition with a limited amount of histori-

and

sociology

He leaves aside structural

exegesis

and

quarrels

with the current

predi-

texts as

originating

with Paul’s

opponents.

1 Cor. 12-14

in determining salient issues

although

familiar passages

in Acts receive some attention.

that he is rarely manipulative

responsible-although

licitous

pamphlet

as authoritative-and not

always predictable. Many

scholars will be

quite sympathetic

his

steady barrage against

an initial evidence form

He

may

not be

completely

much

agreement

will find in the movement and does not often use

between Pentecostals and Charismatics

clarify

such

things.

He evidences an evenhandedness when he

says,

I think it

extremely dangerous

a second

blessing

I think it no less

dangerous

not to pant after God at

with a merely creedal

Christianity

that is kosher but

complacent,

orthodox but ossified, sound but

soundly asleep” (160).

a definition of charisma

[which spans

the

gamut]

et al and

specific grace gifts

enumerated in 1 Cor.

12-14,

often

comparable with current classical Pentecostal

thinking.

The

greatest

attention is

and

prophecy [e.g.

teachers

get

seven

lines]

innovative variation of

tongues-speech

as

glossolalic and/or xenolalic

and an almost Grudemian view of

prophecy.

He does

the

past,

but neither does he

accept

all con- temporary

Pentecostal manifestations

used in public.

“Although

attested

by tongues, all,

and to be satisfied

Carson

provides

given

to

tongues-speech which includes an

not

relegate grace-gifts

to

regulated tongues-speech

of

tongues-speech including

non-

16

66

Carson

acknowledges

the limitations of a small

portion

of

Scripture being

used

authoritatively

to theologize pertinent

pneumatological

con- cerns. Yet one cannot

escape

the

impression

that the

parallels

between the Corinthians and Pentecostals are

singularly compelling

for him. His chapter

of conclusions illustrates some of the

stupidity

and biblical infi- delity

of the Pentecostal Movement and then

surprisingly

casts a quali- fied vote of

approval

for John Wimber

(perhaps

his least

investigated point).

He closes with a

personal application

of his defended theses drawn from a

pastoral ministry

that

experienced

first hand the clash between traditional

evangelicals

and

protestant

charismatics.

I welcome this voice from the

Evangelical

establishment and recom- mend its use in the Pentecostal classroom. He has

already

conceded the fact that he will not

satisfy

all concerned, but he has advanced the cause at hand. His work can

certainly

not be reduced to the level of “certain ecumenical documents where the aim is to

phrase

all doctrinal matters with such

sophisticated ambiguity

that no one can

disagree,

even when there is no real

agreement

in substance”

(171).

Dr. Harold D. Hunter, General

Sunday

School

Secretary, God of

Prophecy,

Cleveland,

Tennessee

Church of

17

George Seminary mans,

M.

Reforming and the New

Evangelicalism

Marsden,

1987),

xii + 319

pp.

This book is the first

full-length

Fundamentalism

is not, however,

Fundamentalism

upon

continuities ment of the two decades

67

$19.95,

Fundamentalism: Fuller

(Grand Rapids:

Eerd-

ISBN 0-8028-3642-9.

examination of Fuller

Theological

1968. Moreover,

highlighted,

tion itself are subordinated. sources, and all

of the

surviving

Seminary

from its

founding

in 1947

through

the mid 1960s.

Reforming

a traditional institutional

history. George

Marsden

designed

the book as a sequel to his

highly

acclaimed

and American Culture; this results in a strong

emphasis

with the earlier

period

and a highly abbreviated treat-

following

attempts

to relate Fuller’s

story

to the

larger neo-Evangelical

selected

topics

that serve as windows on the broader movement

while other themes that relate more

narrowly

to the institu-

The research is

grounded

in archival

There is much in this volume

Fuller

Seminary,

of events

leading up

his

previous

work

the common roots of

many

of the U.S.A. His

separatistic legacy

close ties between

because he movement,

are

papers

and

correspondence

of the

These

materials, put

in the

of Fundamentalism

authority

and interest.

will find the book

fascinating.

of

founding faculty

are used to great advantage.

context of the author’s own

expert knowledge

between the wars,

gives

the book considerable

that is new, and even those who are familiar with

post-war Evangelicalism

The

strength

of the book lies in two areas: the detailed

“prehistory”

and the balanced and

deftly

nuanced

analyses

of the powerful personalities

the founders. Marsden’s research on the

to the

founding

of the

seminary clearly

benefits from

on Fundamentalism. He is

especially insightful

on

the leaders in the

Presbyterian

Church in

treatment of the

ecclesiological

issues

surrounding

the

of Fundamentalism is also

probing.

For

example,

the

the

founding faculty

and

Moody

Bible Institute, on the one

hand,

and Westminster

Seminary,

on the

other, are

very impor- tant.

It

was not clear in the first decade of the

seminary’s history whether the

faculty

would move more in a Fundamentalist or a new

and thus the

emphasis

on the ambivalence of the founders in relation to Fundamentalism is

significant.

The

early

Fuller partook

of both the unitive

principles

of the

great nineteenth-century

tradition and the divisive realities of the Fundamentalist-

“Like it or not, that dual

heritage

was an

integral

in

varying degrees, part

of the

psyche

of each

it”

(118).

The

great value, then,

of

stressing

the leaders and their

struggles

is obvious. We also

Evangelical

direction,

the

importance

of the

symbolic

Evangelical

Modernist

controversy.

part

of the

seminary

and, individual associated with the

personalities

of

find here

good insights concerning boundaries of Evangelicalism, cals’ characteristic lack of

heightened

all the more

by

the

Evangeli- interest in tradition.

18

68

But for all of

my

admiration for the book, I would like to draw atten- tion to three

problems

related to Marsden’s overall historical framework. Each of the

problem

areas touches on the central theme of the institu- tion’s

relationship

to the earlier

history

of Fundamentalism and the emerging neo-Evangelical

movement.

First,

the title

“Reforming

Fun- damentalism”

points

to a nettlesome

conceptual problem

that the book does not resolve. The

phrase “reforming

Fundamentalism”

inevitably connotes an intentional

program

that in fact cannot be found in those terms in the 1940s or 1950s. The

difficulty

of

sustaining

this

concept

is found

repeatedly throughout

the book. Professor Marsden writes that the

shapers

of Fuller

Seminary

in 1957-1958 had

“long hoped”

that attitudes and

emphases

that had

typified

the Fundamentalists of the 1920s-1940s “could be

repudiated”

and that

Evangelicals

could return to the balance of former

days. Again,

“The

early

Fuller had been domi- nated

by those,

such as

Ockenga,

who broke with classic fundamen- talism in order to get back to something more

truly

conservative: classic Calvinistic

orthodoxy.”

And

again,

“The

original generation

of Fuller founders were divided on how far to

stray

from fundamentalism”

(170, 204, 205). “Repudiating,” “breaking,”

and

“straying,”

are not

equivalent to

reforming

Fundamentalism;

in

fact, these words are

incompatible with the idea of reform.

The answer to this

apparent contradiction,

as I understand

it, is that the

faculty

could not

simply

shed their fundamentalistic

heritage; they were themselves

shaped by

their

history.

Well

enough.

But because Fundamentalism involves both a body of doctrine and

separatistic,

and in

many cases, dispensational views,

and since the

early

leaders were shedding

the latter notions,

my question is,

could not the

study

have as reasonably

been called “The

Repudiation

of Fundamentalism?”-a possibility

that Professor Marsden

actually

entertains. The

only way

to make the title work is to maintain that conservative Christian doctrine is the essence of Fundamentalism, not anti-intellectualism,

polemicism,

or separatism (10, 94, 170).

In

fact, however, this

highly idiosyncratic definition is

totally

out of

keeping

with the author’s own

previous publications.

It clarifies

nothing,

and obscures

much,

to locate the heart of Fundamentalism in strict adherence to traditional Christian doctrine. My problem

with

conceptualizing

the

period

1947-1958 as

reforming Fundamentalism is

heightened by

the fact that Fundamentalism

today invariably implies

a

dispensationalist

or a

separatist mentality,

as Marsden observes

(10).

Since there is no

easy

answer to the

question whether the new movement was a reform of Fundamentalism or a repu- diation of Fundamentalism (170), then

why

should the reader be provided

with a facile,

highly misleading

answer in the title? At several crucial

points

in the book we are told that the ideal held before the

eyes of the founders in the late 1940s was not the

previous twenty years,

but nineteenth-century

unitive

Evangelicalism.

The

hope

of the

early years was to carve out a

“large

middle

ground,”

and the reform that was

19

to “its

nineteenth-century

A second

book is that Fuller new

Evangelical

movement

movement

away

from

that “the fundamentalist

69

back

Since the

halting

and difficult

at this time was

“always”

the vision of the

seminary

was to

bring

Fundamentalism

Reformed and

evangelical

roots”

(67-68, 146).

In what sense, then, were the founders of the

seminary

envision- ing

the reform of Fundamentalism?

.

concern is closely related to the first. The

hypothesis

of the

will

provide

a window that

opens upon

the

larger,

and will illumine the latter. An

important thesis

emerges

from this

conception.

Fundamentalism at Fuller took at least a decade, Professor Marsden has shifted the date of a distinctive new

Evangeli- calism to the late 1950s as over

against

the late 1940s. Marsden

argues

heritage

still set much of the Fuller

Seminary agenda”

in

1955,

since the

question

of premillennialism

issue.” Marsden notes that Ladd

rejected pretribulation- ism in 1956, but, he

says,

this was not a repudiation of Fundamental-

however,

the

rapture,

not

premillennialism,

eschatology.

in

fact,

repudiating central feature of Fundamentalism. Thus

by focusing

attention on the

Fundamentalist connections of some of the founders of the

still “a

leading

ism. It is

important

to observe, theories

concerning

issues in fundamentalistic

continuing

conflict

among

the excitement

attending

that

dispensationalism

and

are the

primary Ladd

was,

a

seminary,

much is gained: it helps account, like

nothing

else

can,

for the

leaders. But I think

something

is lost as

well;

the

a sense of

creating something new,

both at-Fuller and elsewhere, is obscured. Moreover, the focus on Fuller alone

may

the broader dimensions of the new Evan-

not take sufficient account of

What was

happening

Evangelicals The American

only through

students were

active,

not in American universities

which

views was

published

gelicalism

in the 1940s.

in the decade of the 1940s besides the

founding of Fuller

Seminary?

We have, of course. the National Association of

in 1942, and its official

organ

United

Evangelical

Action.

Scientific Affiliation was founded in

1941,

and the first number of its

journal appeared

in 1949. The

Evangelical Theological Society

was founded in 1949.

Evangelical

in Bible

schools, but

now

increasingly

the

instrumentality

of Inter-Varsity Christian

Fellowship, came to this

country

in 1940. While Bernard Ramm’s

pivotal

book The Christian View

of Science

and

Scripture appeared

in 1954 and

George Ladd’s The Blessed

Hope against dispensational

in

1956, these books

were conceived in the

stimulating

and

heady

intel- lectual milieu of the

early

1950s. That it was not until 1960 that Bob Jones,

Sr. broke with Charles Fuller over Carnell’s

Theology (1959)

is

striking,

Fundamentalism at Fuller, or a lack of

perception

on Jones’ part

as to what was

transpiring

at Fuller?

(191).

new

Evangelicalism emerged

at Fuller

Seminary

was billed as “A Center of

Evangelical

and the

phrase

“new

evangelicalism”

Orthodox longevity

of

The

language

of the in the 1940s. The

seminary Scholarship,”

The Case

for but is this evidence for the

is found in the

20

70

works of

Henry

and

Ockenga.

Both

men,

in

fact, distanced themselves on occasion from Fundamentalism before 1950

(54, 70).

Marsden comments that

Henry’s term,

“the New

Evangelicalism,”

reflected a new outlook

among “reforn?ing fundamentalists,” though

he adds that “new

Evangelical”

was not

yet

a “common

designation

for a

specific party.”

But in the

very

article referred to, Henry distanced himself from Fundamentalism,

as did

Ockenga

in an article in 1947.

(See 146,

where Marsden

says

the

phrase

did not catch on in the 1940s

[76-77, 80]).

In The

Uneasy

Conscience

of Modern

Fundamentalism

( 1947), Henry

still used the term Fundamentalism, but he was

pressed

over and over

again to

distinguish

it

by

some such

phrase

as “classic fundamentalism.” He admitted that he used the term in 1947

simply

because there was

already too much

terminological

confusion

(The Uneasy Conscience, 62).

But his

concern,

in his own

words,

was “the revitalization of modem evan- gelicalism” (The Uneasy Conscience, 63),

and he even*

depicted “evangelical

uneasiness”

concerning

the

proper

definition of Funda- mentalism as one of the most

promising signs

of the times

(The Uneasy Conscience, 64). Ockenga

at one

point

said that Fuller

Seminary

was founded “to

express

this movement within the fundamentalist

wing

of the Christian Church”

(Reforming Fundamentalism, 147),

but in

1947, according

to Joel

Carpenter, Ockenga “ripped

into Fundamentalism as though

it were an alien

faith, not his own

heritage” (“The

Fundamental- ist Leaven and the Rise of an

Evangelical Front,”

285 in Le0nard I. Sweet, ed.,

The

Evangelical

Tradition in America,

1984).

It was in the 1940s that Camell and Ladd and other “Fundamentalists” were

getting

their

degrees

at Harvard. We have to ask, “The Harvard”? Something genuinely

new is

going

on here.

Geoffrey Bromiley

was not on the West Coast

yet,

but in

England

in the 1940s he was

writing

on Nietzsche, Herder,

and Friedrich

Schlegel,

not a very fundamentalistic thing

to do. Given the

religious power

of Fundamentalism to inhibit -> creative

thought,

more credit needs to be

given

to the intellectual inno- vations and

insights

of the

early

leaders of the

seminary.

When one finds an article in Christian

Life magazine depicting something

new in Evangelical theology

in 1956, and one in Christian

Century discerning the same in 1958, it is not new

then,

in the

mid-fifties; these articles are reflecting

on a decade or more of

change.

Thus it seems to me to be

arguable

that the intention of the articulate leaders of the new

Evangeli- calism had

changed

in the 1940s.

Reforming

Fundamentalism is a book

dealing primarily

with

public perceptions, images,

and

political posturing. Examples

of this are found in Marsden’s

handling

of the

press coverage

of Graham

(153): public speeches

of the Fuller

faculty (156);

the Calvinistic

image

of the semi- nary (157);

and concern for the

seminary having “gone

neo-orthodox.” Marsden concedes at one

point

that

Ockenga’s

rhetoric of 1957 concerning

the new

Evangelicalism

was much the same as that of

1947; but now the leaders were on the

verge

of

actually gaining

the

place

that

21

71

they

had

merely

claimed earlier

(167).

What we find chronicled in Reforming

Fundamentalism, then,

is a change in public consciousness toward Fundamentalists. In this sense

a perceptible

shift can be located in the late 1950s; the

thinking

of the

progressive leaders, however,

had changed

a decade earlier. The focus on Fuller, and even more

narrowly, the detailed attention

given

to the

personalities

of the Fuller

faculty

rather than to their ideas, has

unduly

constricted our vision of the new Evan- gelical

movement and

unjustifiably

shifted the date of its

emergence

to the late 1950s.

The most unfortunate

aspect

of this book is found in a

forty-page epilogue

and

sequel.

These

concluding chapters

have the

tendency

of reinforcing

the book’s fundamental

conceptual

weakness. Professor Marsden utilizes “the battle for the Bible” and the

faculty’s

debate over “signs

and wonders” to probe questions of

identity

and

continuity.

The so-called “Battle for the Bible” and the debate over miracles are dramatic episodes

in the life of the

seminary,

but

they

are also

ephemeral,

and very shaky ground upon

which to take an estimate of the future. Thus Paul Jewett’s Man as Male and Female

(1975)

is understood as a cata- lyst

for the conflict over

inerrancy,

with no notice

concerning

its

posi- tive

impact

on women

training

for the

ministry,

and the course on

signs and wonders is examined with no comment on Colin Brown’s award- winning scholarly

examination of Miracles and the Critical Mind

(1983). Dr. Brown’s book cannot

possibly

be construed as

fighting

a rearguard Fundamentalist battle, but the

faculty

debate over the class is

readily amenable to this construction. The

scholarship

of the

faculty

is a far sounder context in which to discuss the future direction of the

seminary, yet any

estimate of the substantive

scholarly accomplishments

of the faculty

and

any

assessment of the

impact

of their

training persons

for the ministry

are

largely missing

from these

pages.

The

Appendix,

which provides

information on Fuller students from an alumni

survey

and the research of James D. Hunter, is

hardly adequate.

Just as Mark Noll has documented the enormous influence of the

writings

of

George

Ladd (Between

Faith and Criticism:

Evangelicals, Scholarship,

and the Bible in America

[1986), 112-14, 209-14),

the future estimate of the semi- nary

will

depend upon

the assessment of such current

faculty projects

as the Word Biblical

Commentary.

Here

my

concern is that focus on the “Battle for the Bible” and the debate over

signs

and wonders has

greatly narrowed our

understanding

of what Fuller is actually doing.

Clearly,

the

conceptual

framework of

“reforming

Fundamentalism” has

put

the accent on what was retained in the first

twenty years

of the seminary’s

life,

rather than what was new. But more

importantly,

this emphasis

has resulted in a potentially

distorting

twofold constriction of the new

Evangelical

movement; first, to Fuller

seminary

and the personalities

of its

leaders,

rather than their ideas and their

books,

and then to dramatic

public

events that fail to convey the essence of what the seminary

is about. The

openness

of Fuller

Seminary

that this book

.

22

72

celebrates so

enthusiastically

is

merely

the

atmosphere

in which the faculty

lives and works. Further volumes are needed that

attempt

to analyze

the substantive contribution of the

faculty’s teaching

and writing.

Dr. James E.

Bradley,

Associate Theological Seminary,

Pasadena,

Professor of Church

History, California.

Fuller

23

73

Gordon Fee, The First

Epistle

to the Corinthians Rapids:

Wm. B.

Eerdmans, 1987),

880

pp. $29.95 8028-2288-6

(Grand ISBN

0-

A

replacement

volume for F. W. Grosheide’s

commentary

on First Corinthians has been

long

overdue. In the time since its

publication (1953)

the scene has

changed dramatically.

An

explosion

of

scholarly inquiry

has illuminated

many

dimensions of the text of I Corinthians. Moreover,

the

impact

of the Pentecostal/Charismatic renewal has served to raise the fundamental

question concerning

the role and function of spiritual gifts

in

contemporary worship.

In light of these trends a more up-to-date

and informed

commentary

has been needed.

Both the editor

(F. F. Bruce)

and the

publisher (Wm.

B.

Eerdmans)

are to be commended for their selection of Gordon Fee

(Ph.D., University of Southern California) as the author of the

replacement

volume. Their choice demonstrates

sensitivity

to the needs of the

scholarly

and eccle- siastical communities. New Testament scholars know Fee as a leading text

critic,

while a wider

theological

audience

may

be more familiar with his work in exegesis and hermeneutics. Members of SPS know Fee as a passionate

advocate of the Pentecostal dimension of the Christian life.

Fee’s

commentary

is an excellent

piece

of work which exhibits sound hermeneutical

principles

and solid

exegetical

skills.

Reading

the volume is certainly a pleasurable experience. Its wealth of information

(over

800 pages

of

text)

offers one an

opportunity

to enter the world of the church at

Corinth,

as well as

survey

the

scholarly

debates which surround 1 Corinthians. At the same time, the

commentary engages

the reader in such a

way

that reflection about the

meaning

of the text on a personal level is evoked.

Of the

many significant

dimensions of this

commentary

three deserve specific

mention:

1)

It will

surprise

few that Fee’s work devotes enormous attention to the establishment of the text of 1 Corinthians. Over 250 textual

prob- lems receive attention,

many

of which do not

appear

in the standard critical editions of the Greek New Testament. In these sections Fee’s skills as a text critic become obvious.

2) One

of the most

helpful

attributes of this

commentary

concerns the format of the work.

“Every major

section is

introduced, as is every paragraph,

with an

attempt

to reconstruct the historical

background

and to trace the flow of Paul’s

argument.” (x)

Such

clarity

of

presentation prevents

the reader from

being

overwhelmed

by

the sheer size of the volume. Attention is focused

upon

the

place

and

significance

of each section within the

epistle,

which serves to make clear the

logical sequence

of Paul’s

thought.

One can

hope

that Fee’s

approach

will influence other commentators. In addition, almost

every paragraph concludes with observations about

application.

This

portion

of the

24

74

commentary

will be

appreciated especially by

those who have searched in vain for similar

help

in commentaries of

comparable scholarly acumen.

3) One of

the most

significant

contributions of Fee’s work is the exe- gesis

of

chapters

12-14. The nature and

purpose

of

spiritual gifts

are examined within the context of the

problems

at Corinth. Fee identifies an unnatural exaltation of

tongues

as the

primary problem among

the Corinthians.

Carefully working

his

way through

this controversial material,

Fee admonishes those who

deny

the

legitimacy

of

spiritual gifts

in

contemporary worship,

while

reproving

others who distort genuine spiritual

manifestations

through

unbiblical

practice. Through- out, Fee’s

aim is to listen to Paul’s instructions, not to argue a particular theological position.

His even-handed treatment of these

chapters

is clearly

the best

attempt yet

made.

A work of this

magnitude provides

a number of issues over which to disagree.

The

present

volume is no

exception. However,

the most troubling

feature of this

commentary

for readers of Pneuma

may very well be Fee’s failure to interact with or even cite

many

Pentecostal scholars who have

published

in this area. Most often he

simply

fails to cite the relevant literature. Such omissions include works relevant to Sitz-im-Leben

(e.g.

French L.

Arrington,

Paul’s Aeon

Theology

in 1 Corinthians

[Washington: University

Press of America,

1978)],

and the divorce

pericope [Robert

W.

Herron, Jr., “Mark’s Jesus on Divorce: Mark 10:1-12 Reconsidered,” JETS 25

(1982) 273-281.],

as well as those on

spiritual gifts [e.g., Stanley

Horton,

What the Bible

Says About the

Holy Spirit (Springfield: Gospel Publishing House, 1976) and J. Rodman Williams “The Greater Gifts,” Charismatic

Experiences in

History

ed.

by

Cecil M. Robeck, Jr.

(Peabody:

Hendrickson

Pub., 1985), 44-65].

A number of relevant Pneuma articles which could have been cited were omitted. In fact, the

only

citation of Pneuma is in refer- ence to one of Fee’s own articles. Such omissions are hard to account for in a work which so

thoroughly

documents such a very wide

range

of relevant materials.

This

enigma

aside,

Fee’s

commentary

is excellent. It is destined to become one of the standard commentaries, if not the standard commen- tary,

on 1 Corinthians. It is a pleasure to recommend such a fine work to the readers of Pneuma.

John

Christopher

Thomas, Assistant Professor of New Testament Studies,

Church of God School of Theology, Cleveland, Tennessee.

25

David Edwin Harrell, Jr., Religious,

and Political

Portrait, Row, 1987),

246

pp.

$15.95. Hubert Morken, Pat

Tappan,

N.J.:

Fleming

H. paper.

ISBN

Robertson:

Robertson has

and talk show host to become candidacy

was

proposed were to receive

launched a

year

later, primary

election in March

Christian

Right.

had been clear and consistent,

Dates

75

Pat Robertson: A

Personal,

(San Francisco: Harper ISBN 0-06-250380-4

&

Where He

Stands, (Old Revell, 1988),

311

pp. $8.95

Christian broadcaster

Pat

registered

voters),

political

views

the market was flooded with

supported

or had

misgivings rushed a campaign

biography Biography, by

John

No

stranger

to the readers of this

journal,

in a few short

years gone

from an obscure TV

preacher

a household word. His

presidential

in

September

1986

(he

said he would run if he

signatures

from three million

and

only

abandoned after the

“super-Tuesday”

1988. It represented the most

significant

bid for political

power

made

by any figure

identified with the so-called New

To watchers of the

right,

Robertson’s

and for the

general public they

were most cogently spelled

out in a manifesto he

published

in

1986,

America’s

with

Destiny (Nelson). Quickly

articles and books

by people

who knew him and

by

those who either

about his

candidacy.

His

organization

even

into

print,

Pat Robertson: The Authorized

B. Donovan

(Macmillan).

The two books under review stand

considerably

the

presses

in 1987 and

early 1988,

but

with

any timely

works of this

nature, the sudden shift in the candidate’s fortunes made them somewhat redundant.

valuable sources of information about Robertson’s

and

they

remain useful sources for observers

popular

material that

poured

off as is the case

cal behavior.

focuses on Robertson’s heavily upon

luminaries

document his

quotations essay.

The

contains few

surprises

personal

then traces the three distinctive

above the level of the

Still, they

are

life and

opinions, of American

religio-politi-

southern

religion,

and that he is a

David Harrell, a

respected

scholar of American

life and work. It is

hurriedly

written and draws

interviews with

Robertson,

his

entourage,

and

many

within the New

Right. Unfortunately,

the author chose not to

other than

through

a general

bibliographical

first half of the book is devoted to

biographical

details. It

other than the conclusion that Robertson is a man of

deep

convictions, charm,

and

charisma,

centrist who has almost

always

shown restraint and balance. Harrell

religious

elements in Robertson-the charismatic, evangelical,

and Southern

Baptist.

All of these

groups

were entering

the

political

mainstream and hence individuals from each of

with the

televangelist

picked up

the

power

of

positive

faith

emphases

and conservative social

them could

identify

from

Virginia

Beach. He

26

76

agenda

of these communities,

although

considerable doubt remains in the minds of critics as to whether a person who adhered to

something

so subjective

as charismatic

theology

could be trusted to behave

rationally as

president

of the United States.

Particularly noteworthy

is Harrell’s discussion of Robertson’s role in

bringing evangelicals

and charismatics closer

together.

The

prophetic

beliefs and vision of a Christian America which both shared contributed to this.

Finally,

he summarizes Robert- son’s

political pilgrimage,

ties with the

religious right,

views on

foreign policy,

social

issues, economics,

and the secular humanist

conspiracy, and

program

of Christian

populism.

Hubert

Morken,

a political science

professor, analyzes

the candidate’s ideas in considerable

depth.

He has

plowed through

a mountain of printed speech texts, taped

addresses,

and

published

work in order to provide

an honest

exposition

of his tenets. Like Harrell he has

great respect

for Robertson’s

integrity

and winsome

personality

and it is not surprising

that the book is

anything

but a critical assessment of his program.

Morken’s

findings

about Robertson’s views are similar to those of Harrell, and he is to be commended for

carefully documenting statements. Thus, it is a useful research tool for future scholars of this evangelical politician. Topics

touched

upon

include the economy, social problems,

the

family, religious liberty (Robertson obviously

does not understand the real

meaning

of church-state

separation), foreign policy, biblical

principles

for success, the need for revival in America,

personal prayer

life, ideas

about

prophecy,

and how he handles the

press

and

conducts his

campaign

Both writers reflect a high level of

empathy

with

Robertson,

and his critics will not find either book

fully

to their

liking, especially Morken’s, since it seldom raises

questions

about even the

evangelist’s

most outra- geous

views. For a corrective I would

suggest

the

analysis

in

chapter

6 (140-71)

of Jim Castelli,A

Plea for

Common

Sense: Resolving

the Clash Between

Religion

and Politics

(San

Francisco:

Harper

&

Row, 1988), which reveals

just

how much of an extremist he

really

is.

According

to Castelli,

Robertson sees no difference between God’s will and his own personal ambitions,

is

extraordinarily ambiguous

in his

understanding of the

separation

of church and state, and holds far-out views on a wide range

of

political

and social issues. Still, both books under considera- tion do

clarify

that he is the first

major

candidate in recent times who attempted

to mobilize

religious people

of conservative

persuasion,

stood on a

platform

which he

genuinely

believed was connected to biblical principles,

and

prayed publicly

for

supernatural help

in facing his tasks. Further, Robertson’s candidacy

must not be seen as a cynical

grab

for power

but an action of

deepest sincerity.

Now that he has tasted success,

he is not

likely

to retire from the

political

arena. We will cer- tainly

see Pat Robertson in politics

again,

and these works will

help

us to understand him better when that time comes.

27

77

Richard V. Pierard, Terre Haute, Indiana.

Professor of

History,

Indiana State

University,

28

78

I. Howard

Marshall, ed.,

Christian

Experience

in

Theology and

Life: Papers

Read at the 1984

Conference of

the Fellowship of European Evangelical Theologians

Scottish Bulletin of

Evangelical Theology, Special Study

2

(Edin- burgh :

Rutherford House

Books, 1988), 198

pp.

£7.90 Sterling,

ISBN 0-946068-32.

Theology-even evangelical theology-without experience

carries the danger

of lifeless intellectualism;

experience

without

theology suggests the errors of

subjectivism

and

mysticism.

This truism is almost

beyond challenge.

Yet after the two extremes have been

rejected,

one is still faced with the

necessity

of defining how

theology

and

experience

relate.

The

presence

of the Pentecostal/charismatic movements

poses

a direct challenge

to

evangelical theology

to interact with this

reality.

Evan- gelicals

cannot hide behind their claim of holding a theology built

solely on

Scripture

while

accusing

Pentecostals of

articulating

a

theology grounded

on

experience.

Pentecostals, on

the other

hand,

have the necessity

of defining their

experience

in theological/Biblical terms. The necessity of.defining

the

relationship

between

theology

and life also weighs heavily

on the charismatic for he or she should not be content merely

to add a description of charismatic

gifts

to his or her

theological tradition. All Christians are confronted with the task of

integrating theology

and life in such a way that each has

validity

within a unity of perspective.

It was this

question

that the

Fellowship

of

European Evangelical Theologians (of course, commonly

called

FEET)

conference set forth as a theme four

years ago.

After a long delay and a couple of false

starts, the

major presentations

of the conference have

finally appeared

in print. The

publication

of these

papers

not

only

demonstrates FEET

growing maturity

but also, and more

importantly,

set forth an

important topic with considerable

theological

acumen.

Derek Tidball

opens

the collection with an

essay

on the concern (“hunger”)

for

experience

that characterizes

contemporary

culture. He calls for a

theology

of

experience

that takes both

Scripture

and personality seriously

and offers structure and

meaning

rather than chaos and

idolatry.

Three

essays

consider the

topic

from an historical

perspective

for previous attempts

to understand Christian

experience

continue to cast a shadow, especially

in

Europe,

over the current discussion. Luther’s confrontation with the Schwarmer is described

by David F. Wright

who points

out Luther’s indiscriminate use of the term and the

subjective elements in his own

theologizing.

Two more modem

theologians, Friedrich Schleiermacher and Karl Barth, are

surveyed by

Alan Tor- rance while Christina Baxter

brings

the reader

up

to date

by tracing

the contribution of contemporary

theologians

like Karl

Rahner,

Hans

Kfng,

29

79

J. Moltmann, and W.

Pannenberg among

others. Each contributor

more than a historical

description essential for

constructing today.

The

theological

offers a

theological

experience-including

a theological

Of

special paper, appearing

purpose

matic

exegesis. Widening

gifts

were a

temporary

roughly

commonalities ience of

supernatural

gives but tries to define the issues that are

understanding

of

experience

center of

evangelical

of

understanding

the

version,

entitled

content,

coheres with the New Testament

Turner

points

to the

exper-

task itself is then taken

up by Helmut Burkhardt who

analysis

of conversion-the

its nature and

necessity

while

Siegfried

Lieb- schner

gives pastoral insights

into the

problem

guidance

of the

Holy Spirit.

interest to readers of this

journal

will be Max Turner’s

here in a somewhat shortened

“Prophecy

and

Spiritual

Gifts: Then and Now.”

Starting

with a study of prophecy

in Paul and Luke, Turner moves to the

psychology,

and

authority

of

prophetic speech. Prophecy,

which Turner defines as oracular

speech,

is differentiated from

preaching

and charis-

the issue to charismata in general, he

argues that there is no Pauline evidence to support the contention that

spiritual

bonus for the

primitive

church. He holds that contemporary prophecy

pattern. By dispelling

some of the

misconceptions,

in Christian

experience showing

the Pentecostal’s

is not

essentially

different from that of other evan- gelicals,

but he relates such manifestations to the residence of the

Spirit in the believer rather than to a sudden, crisis

spiritual baptism.

Runia

points

out in his

concluding essay,

it is not sufficient

the

danger

of

divorcing theology

from life. The Christian

theologically;

These FEET

papers provide

a

and

challenge

evangelicals (admittedly overlapping categories)

to develop a fully Biblical

understanding

of Christian

experience.

Furthermore this work

for such a theology.

As Klaas

to

point

out

life must be understood

offers a good

starting point

theology

must be life related. for

Pentecostals, charismatics

Dr. Donald Dean Smeeton, Associate Dean for Student

Services,

Inter-

Institute, Brussels,

Belgium

national

Correspondence

30

Don of 1 pp.

Carson, Corinthians $12.95,

Showing

12-14

the

Spirit:

(Grand

ISBN 0-8010-2521-4

Don Carson’s

Showing

historical and

theological

by

the common theme of Charismatic

the

Spirit

contains observations

concern is evident

throughout

Nevertheless, times

Carson deals

80

A

Theological Exposition Rapids: Baker, 1987),

229

a mixture of

exegesis, and

anecdotes,

all tied

together theology/praxis.

The bulk of the

1 Corinthians

12-14, though

A

pastoral

some-

the

passages

adduced from Acts in

discussions of

the:baptism ality

contemporary

Charismatic glossolalia

in the

contemporary

book

(chapters 1-4)

is a re-examination of

even here Carson does not restrict himself to

exegesis.

the

book,

so that

exegetical

and

theologi- cal

problems

are related to

worship

and

practice

in the local church.

with the

major exegetical problems,

at length, and the

busy pastor may

find some

portions

as daunting as a technical

commentary.

The last

chapter (chapter five)

deals with a wide

variety

of

subjects, including

with the

Holy Spirit; glossolalia

and

spiritu-

in church

history;

the

theology

of a second

blessing,

abuses of

leadership,

the

question

of the role of

church.

apostleship.

On the other hand,

chapter

legitimate

expression

of

phenomena,

including glossolalia-to

ecstasy

and

Carson, a professor at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, has written one of the few “re-examinations” of 1 Cor. 12-14 which can

justly

claim that

designation. Although

the book contains few

original observations, Carson is not

predictable.

He has

praise

and blame for both sides of the debate over charismatic

theology/praxis,

and is not restricted to a uni- form

Reformed, Dispensationalist,

or Pentecostal-charismatic answer.

Carson

rejects any attempt

to inject into the text a temporal limitation on the distribution of

spiritual gifts,

with the

(justifiable) exception

of

he stresses the norms of

intelligibility and benefit to the

congregation

which Paul

brings

forth

especially

in

fourteen. Hence Carson

emphatically

affirms

glossolalia

as a

the

Spirit

both then and

now,

yet

he has a diffi- cult time

finding

a proper

place

for

glossolalia

in the

(modem) public worship

service.

In discussing

chapter

twelve, Carson takes

a very

positive

view of the

the

point

that he relates Corin- thian

glossolalia

to that of Acts 2 and denies

any background

in

pagan

to 12:1-8. He tries to support this move

by denying

the existence of a similar

glossolalia among

Hellenistic

oracles, thus

implicitly

identi-

with

glossolalia and ignoring

non-oracular

religious

In another unusual move, Carson

argues forcibly

that 12:8

as

following logically

from verse

1,

not verse 2 (24-27, following deBroglie

and

Mehat).

But once v. 2 is

severed,

and the

problem,

apagomenoi (‘led away’)

in relation to Carson’s

exegesis

of the

passage is never answered.

fying ecstasy experiences. must be understood

seems

just

to float

away

it

e.g.,

of

understanding

31

81

Carson’s treatment of

chapter

thirteen is

fairly standard, though surprisingly

he sees no reference to pagan

worship

in 13:1-3. He

rejects the ridiculous

(yet persistent) opinion

that

pausontai (13:8) implies tongues

shall cease of themselves at the

completion

of the canon

(66f). He also

rejects

R. Martin’s

reading

of 13:13b, “the

greatest

of these is the love

[of God],” though

on

syntactical grounds

which are

ambiguous at best.

‘ .

In his treatment of 14:1-19 he takes the odd

position

of

arguing

that glossolalia

is real

language

with

meaningful

content, while acknowl- edging

that it is

(at

Corinth and in

contemporary practice)

neither

any human

(nor angelic) language,

nor

comprehensible

to anyone

apart

from the charisma of

interpretation (83-85).

He uses the

questionable analogy of a coded

message,

as

though

the

interpreter

is a cryptographer. On the problematic

section 14:33b-36 Carson maintains

(with

M.

Thrall, J.

Hurley)

that it prohibits women from

participating

in the

weighing

of prophecies

in

meetings (130). Following Grudem,

he

argues

that the gift

of

prophecy

in the N.T. has a

decidedly

different

(i.e. lower) authority

claim than O.T.

prophecy (91-99).

The final

chapter

deals with a variety of issues, as noted. This section is more anecdotal in character than the rest of the book, and Carson pastoral

interest comes

through strongly.

His

grievances against

abuses of office and

authority by

Charismatic leaders

ought

to challenge anyone in Christian

leadership

to perform with

integrity.

The Charismatic leader who shines the

brightest

in Carson’s estimate is John

Wimber, largely because of Wimber’s Reformed

theology,

but also due to his

“good judgment” (178).

Most others fall under the bane of a

“profound misunderstanding

of the nature of God’s

sovereignty” (180).

There are several

disconcerting, elementary

errors in Carson’s

exege- sis of 1 Cor. 12-14:

e.g.,

that en

pneumati

is

“strictly

in the

Spirit” (37-overly literal);

that to teleion is masculine

(69-it

is neuter); or that the

plural

touton of 13:13 is “irreparably damaging” to Martin’s

position on this verse

(73f-grammatically nonsense).

In

addition,

I found that Carson’s desire to defend the

authenticity

of

glossolalia

led him to an unnecessary

denial of Paul’s reference to Hellenistic

(pagan) worship, ecstasy

and mantism in 12:1-3, 13:1-3, and 14:23. Carson’s claim that most scholars

classify chapter

13 as a

hymn (52)

is

mystifying.

And several inconsistencies haunt his favored and

heavily

defended

posi- tions, so

that

e.g.

women can

prophesy (11 :5)

and the whole

congrega- tion is called on to weigh each

prophecy (14:29); yet

the latter must not include women, for that would

give

them too much status

(even though these

prophecies

are not

inspired

as

scripture is),

and would contradict his

interpretation

of 14:33b-36

(120, 130).

It is also notable that in

spite of Carson’s

strong

defense of the

legitimacy

of

glossolalia

and other charismata he is highly skeptical of most modem instances of glossolalia and

interpretation

in public

worship.

32

82

Overall Carson affirms the

experience

of charismatics and their fifth in God’s

continuing

intervention in

history,

while

criticizing

their theo- logical expression

of that

experience.

He is also critical of an expectation of God’s intervention that leaves no choice for God and no

suffering

for the believer. Pastors and students of all

persuasions

will find Carson interesting

and

may glimpse through

his

eyes something praiseworthy

in those of different

backgrounds.

Terence

Paige, M.C.S.,

M.Div. is a Greek

Teaching Theological Seminary,

Pasadena, California

Fellow, Fuller

33

83

David F. Wells,

God the

Evangelist:

How the

Holy Spirit Works to Bring

Men and Women to Faith

(Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1987),

128

pp. $6.95.

ISBN 0-85364-455-1

.

This

summary

of the

Theology Working group

of the Lausanne Committee for World Evangelization

and the

Theology

Unit of the World

Evangelical Fellowship

consultation on the Work of the

Holy Spirit

and

Evangelization (1985)

is an

important

contribution to the literature. This Protestant ecumenical

gathering

included

many

Pente- costal scholars and seems

quite

sensitive to a wide stream of Protestant thinking, missiology

and church

experience.

The author

attempts

to

synthesize

and summarize the

conversation, without

allowing

the book to be a mere

report

of discussions. For this reason it bears his

theological stamp

and must be evaluated for its

per- sonal

theological

conclusions,

not those of the whole consultation. The book takes a serious biblical

approach

to its

themes, without

neglecting patristic,

confessional and

contemporary

cultural critical

perspectives.

It is

widely synthetic,

not

avoiding

the difficult issues of world

religions, ethical

questions-both personal

and

social,

spirituality,

the nature of the

church, power

encounters and other elements which

emerge

from considering evangelism

from the

standpoint of pneumatology.

The book also contains five

appendices

that are

papers contributing

to the consul- tation on Africa, China,

People Groups,

Bible

Study,

and the Local Church.

The author’s

point

of view on the

recognition

of the

Holy Spirit

active beyond

the bounds of the Christian churches and the role of other world religions

in God’s

plan

will find criticism

among many evangelical Christians who read the Bible

carefully,

but with different

presupposi- tions than this author.

Surely

the world is not abandoned

by God,

nor are those

searching

for God

totally

without access to his

saving grace. Likewise,

his

occasionally

biased remarks relative to Roman Catholic Christianity

detract from the

genuine

contribution to an ecumenical understanding

from a Biblical

point

of view, of the

relationship

of trini- tarian

theology, especially

the role of the

Holy Spirit,

and the Great Commission.

Jeffrey Gros,

FSC Director, Faith and Order Commission National Council of the Churches of Christ in the

USA,

New

York,

New York.

34

Peter

Hocken,

Streams Development of

the Charismatic (Devon, England

Paternoster ISBN 0-85364-422-5

of Renewal,

movement

than Peter Hocken,

84

The

Origins

and

Early

Movement in Great

Britain, Press, 1986),

287

pp.

$11.95

Bom an

Anglican

verted to Roman Catholicism, Diocese of

Northampton.

Birmingham,

he became convinced authentic

spiritual

movement

No one could be better

qualified

to write on the British charismatic

a

transplanted Englishman

who now resides in the Mother of God

Community

in

Birmingham, England,

eventually

After

visiting

a Black Pentecostal church in

in

Gaithersburg, Maryland.

Hocken as a

youth

con- becoming

a

priest

in the

that Pentecostalism

represented

of

renewing

an the

with the

potential

churches, including

his own Roman Catholic communion.

a scholarly

history

of the

origins

of the modem British charismatic movement in the mainline churches.

Hocken’s Streams

of Renewal is

very

short

Done under the direction of versity,

the book exhibits some separate European

Pentecostalism chapter

entitled “A

Comparison

Readers of Streams friends,

not as well known on

Since the

period

covered

by

the book ends in

1965, the story covers

a

time

span,

the movement

beginning

in Britain about 1960.

Walter

Hollenweger,

of

Birmingham

Uni-

of

Hollenweger’s lifelong

crusade to

from its American

roots,

although

a

with North America”

clearly

indicated the interrelatedness of the American and British movements.

of

Renewal will be introduced to

many

old

such as Smith

Wigglesworth,

David du

Plessis,

and Donald Gee,

while

learning

the names of many

important

British leaders that are

this side of the Atlantic. Such men as Cecil Cousen,

David G. Lillie,

Campbell McAlpine,

Trout were

pioneers

in the 1950’s who had

already

broken with the classical Pentecostal denominations and were to make

significant

contri- butions to the

rising

charismatic movements in the churches after 1960. They

learned the truth of Gee’s

aphorism,

denomination,

it is a revival.”

Denis

Clark,

and

Edgar

“Pentecost is more than a

Pentecost

crossing

denominational barriers

occupies

most of the book.

Among early Anglican

charismatics

movement,

and Fellowship. Clarke, C. Gordon

Strachan,

were.

“Brother Bill”

Wood,

and

pioneer

Charles J.

of

charismatic

the classical Pentecostal exceedingly

Michael

Harper,

soon to become an international leader in the

Anglican

Richard Bolt, founder of the Students’ Pentecostal

Other

early

leaders were Methodist

a

Presbyterian,

and Harold Owen, an early

leader

among Baptist

charismatics.

The

major

thrust of the book is to chronicle the first

stirrings

renewal in the mainline churches in Britain, as distinct from

movement that

preceded

it. This Hocken does

well. The book is intrinsically interesting and well written, with all the excitement and flair of a new movement

breaking

loose in

35

85

the land. Its narrative

and testimonial

style

adds much color and life to the

story.

Hocken’s

attempt

to

separate

the British movement from its classical Pentecostal and American roots leaves some

gaps

that would have added value to his

study. Missing

are references to the

Irvingite

movement in England

in the 1830’s and the

important healing

crusades of

George Jeffries in the 1930’s and 1940’s that

spread

a consciousness of Pente- costalism

throughout

Britain in the

years preceding

the outbreak of the charismatic movement in the mainline churches.

Hocken makes several

special

contributions to the

history

of the movement in both Britain and America. Of

special

interest is the role of Agnes

Sanford,

the Blessed

Trinity Society,

and the Order of St. Luke in the

early days

of the movement. Also of

importance

was the 1965 airlift of Full

Gospel

Businessmen to London, which added an exuber- ance of

style

to the flavor of the movement. Another

interesting sidelight is the role of Harald Bredesen in the

original usage

of the terms “neo- Pentecostal” and “Charismatic Renewal,” the latter first used in the Full Gospel

Businessmens’ Voice in 1963.

Hocken’s work is a vital addition to the field of Pentecostal/charis- matic

knowledge.

The three

appendices,

the extensive

Bibliography, and

the copious

footnotes

prove

that Streams

of Renewal

is a scholarly work of the first order. It should fill the niche for the British charismatic movement that Richard

Quebedeaux’s

The New Charismatics did for the movement in the United States.

Vinson

Synan,

an Ordained Pentecostal Holiness

minister, Chairman

of the North American Renewal Service Committee, Oklahoma

City, Oklahoma.

36

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